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Table 1 Efficiency of different iPS induction methods in fibroblasts

From: Advances in understanding the cell types and approaches used for generating induced pluripotent stem cells

Delivery system Species Technology Efficiency (%) reference
Virus M OSKM/retrovirus 0.001 ~ 0.01 [[1]]
H OSKM/retrovirus 0.02 [[2]]
H OSNL/lentivirus 0.01 ~ 0.02 [[3]]
M, H OSK/retrovirus <0.001 [[25]]
M OSK/retrovirus + VPA 2 [[26]]
H OSK/retrovirus + VPA 1 [[19]]
OS/retrovirus + VPA <0.001  
M OSKM/adenovirus 0.0001 ~ 0.001 [[27]]
H OSKM/retrovirus/p53 siRNA and UTF1 2 [[28]]
M OSKM/a single polycistronic retrovirus 0.0001 [[29]]
M OSKM/retrovirus/p53 siRNA 20 [[30]]
OSK/retrovirus/p53 siRNA 10  
H OSKM/SeV ~1% [[31]]
M pMX-OSKM cDNA/retrovirus + Vc 8.75 [[32]]
H OSKM/retrovirus + VPA + Vc 6.2 [[33]]
Plasmids M pCX-cMyc + pCX-OSK-2A 0.0001 ~ 0.0003 [[34]]
EV H IRES2 -mediated OSNLKM + SV40LT 0.0003-0.0006 [[35]]
Protein M OSKM + VPA/recombinant protein 0.006 [[36]]
OSK + VPA/recombinant protein 0.001  
H OSKM/cell extract 0.001 [[37]]
Modified-RNA H OSKML 2(KSOML), 1.4(KSOM) [[38]]
Minicircle DNA H OSNL ~0.0005 [[39]]
Artificial chromosome vectors H OSKM 0.001%. [[40]]
Small-molecule compounds M 7 small-molecule compounds 0.2 [[41]]
  1. Abbreviations: M mouse, H human, oriP/EBNA1 Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1, EV episomal vectors, IRES2 internal ribosome entry site 2, SV40LT SV40 large T gene, VPA valproic acid, Vc vitamin C, siRNA small-interfering RNA.