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Table 2 The efficiency of cells of various non-fibroblast origins for generating iPSCs

From: Advances in understanding the cell types and approaches used for generating induced pluripotent stem cells

Germ layer Cells Methods Efficiency (%) Reference
Mesoderm Human fibroblast-like synoviocytes OSKM/retrovirus 0.002 [[2]]
hASCs OSKM/lentivirus 0.4 [[42]]
hASCs OSKM + VPA + Vc/retrovirus 7.06 [[32]]
hASCs OSNL cassette/minicircle DNA ~0.005 [[39]]
Immature B lymphocytes of mouse iPS chimeras Carry dox-inducible OSKM retroviruses already - [[56]]
Mature B lymphocytes of mouse in the iPS chimeras Carry dox-inducible OSKM retroviruses already + C/EBPalpha) or Pax 5 knockdown 1/30  
Terminally differentiated T lymphocytes of p53-null mouse OSKM/retrovirus 0.00015 [[30]]
G-CSF mobilized human CD34+ PBCs OSKM/retrovirus 0.01 ~ 0.02 [[47]]
0.002
Human CB-derived ECs OSNL/lentivirus 0.01 ~ 0.03 [[50]]
Mouse BW progenitor cells OSKM/retrovirus 0.00002 ~ 0.00006 [[49]]
Human CD133+ CB cells OSKM,OSK,OS/retrovirus 0.002 ~ 0.007(OSK) [[57]]
Human PBMCs (T cell and myeloid cell) OSKM polycistronic expression cassette/dox-inducible lentivirus 0.001 ~ 0.0002 [[51]]
Human PB CD34+ cells OSKM/two rounds of lentiviral infection 0.002 [[52]]
Human T cell in PBMCs 0.0008 ~ 0.001
Human and murine CMCs and periosteal membrane pMX-OSKM cDNA/retrovirus + Vc + VPA higher than UMCs [[32]]
Human UMCs pMX-OSKM cDNA/retrovirus + Vc + VPA 0.4 [[33]]
Human AMCs 0.1
Oral mucosa fibroblasts OSKM/retrovirus 0.022 [[58]]
Endoderm Mouse liver and stomach cells OSKM/retrovirus _ [[59]]
Mouse pancreatic β cells OSKM/inducible lentivirus 0.1 ~ 0.2 [[60]]
HUCs Retroviral pMX vectors containing the cDNAs of mouse OSKM 0.1 ~ 4 [[53]]
HUCs OSK + SV40LT + MIR302–367/EV electroporation 0.2 [[54]]
Human nasal epithelial cells OSKM/SeV 0.08 ~ 0.10 [[61]]
Human dental pulp cells OSK/retrovirus 0.01 ~ 0.10 [[62]]
Ectoderm Mouse NSCs OSKM/retrovirus 3.6 [[63]]
Oct4 with either Klf4 or c-Myc/retrovirus 0.11  
Oct4/retrovirus 0.014 [[64]]
Mouse meningiocytes pMX of OSKM-cDNAs/retroviral 0.8 [[65]]
Human keratinocytes OSKM/retrovirus 1 [[45]]
  OSKM/a single polycistronic retrovirus - [[29]]
Mouse and human melanocytes OKM or OKS/dox-inducible lentivirus 0.19 [[66]]
Human DP cells from hair follicles OSKM/pMX-based retrovirus 1.38 [[46]]
OK/pMX-based retrovirus 0.024  
Chimeras Cells of mouse iPS-cell chimeras OSKM/dox-inducible polycistronic lentiviruses _ [[67]]
  1. dox: doxycycline; CMCs: chorionic mesenchymal cells; UMCs: mesenchymal-like cells from the umbilical cord matrix; AMCs: the amniotic membrane mesenchyme.