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Table 1 Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their DAMPs and PAMPs ligands

From: Toll-like receptors in the pathogenesis of human B cell malignancies

  DAMPS (endogenous) PAMPs (exogenous)
Ligand Ligand Origin
TLR1   Tri-acylated Lipopeptides Bacteria and Mycobacteria
Soluble factors Neisseria meningitidis
TLR2 HSP60, HSP70, HSP96 Lipoprotein/lipopeptides Various pathogens
HMGB1 Peptidoglycan Gram + bacteria
Hyaluronic acid Lipoteichoic acid Gram + bacteria
  Lipoarabinomannam Mycobacteria
Phenol-soluble modulin Staphylococcus epidermis
Glycoinostolphospholipids Trypanosoma cruzi
Glycolipids Treponema maltophilum
Porins Neisseria
Atypical-LPS Leptospira interrogans and Porphyromonas gingivalis
Zymosan Fungi
TLR3 dsRNA, mRNA dsRNA Viruses
TLR4 HSP22, HSP60, HSP70, LPS Gram- bacteria
HSP96 HSP60 Chlamydia pneumonia
HMGB1β-defensin 2 Fusion protein Respiratory syncytial virus
fibronectin Envelope proteins Mouse mammary tumor virus
Hyaluronic acid Taxol Plant product
Heparan sulphate   
Fibrinogen   
Surfactant-protA   
TLR5   Flagellin Gram + or Gram- bacteria
TLR6   Di-acylated lipopeptides Mycoplasma
Lipoteichoic acid Gram + bacteria
Zymosan Fungi
Phenol-soluble modulin Staphylococcus epidermis
Heat-liable soluble factor Group B streptococcus
TLR7 Endogenous RNA ssRNA Viruses
TLR8 Endogenous RNA ssRNA Viruses
TLR9 Endogenous DNA Unmethylated CpG motifs Bacteria and viruses
Hemozoin Plasmodium
TLR10 Unknown Unknown