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Table 1 Identified biomarkers and their relevant drugs in selected cancers*

From: Strategies for modern biomarker and drug development in oncology

Biomarker Drug Drug action Cancer type (Survival benefit)
ALK Ceritinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor of ALK Lung cancer
  Crizotinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor of ALK Lung cancer
BRAF (V600E) Dabrafenib Inhibits B-RAF protein Melanoma
  Trametinib Inhibits MEK1 and MEK2 growth factor-mediated signaling Melanoma
  Vemurafenib Small molecule inhibitor of BRAF (V600E) kinase Melanoma
CTLA-4 Ipilimumab Monoclonal antibody directed against CTLA-4, enhancing T-cell activation Melanoma
EGFR Afatinib Irreversibly inhibits EGFR, HER2, HER4, mutant EGFR (exon 19, 21) Lung cancer
  Cetuximab Recombinant, chimeric, monoclonal antibody directed against EGFR Colorectal cancer, SCCHN**
  Erlotinib Reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR Lung cancer, Pancreatic cancer
  Gefinitib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR Lung cancer
  Panitumumab Humanized monoclonal antibody directed against EGFR Colorectal cancer
HER2 Lapatinib Reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR, HER2 Breast cancer
  Pertuzumab Recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody preventing HER2 dimerization Breast cancer
  Trastuzumab Recombinant, humanized, monoclonal antibody directed against HER2 Breast cancer, Gastric cancer
  Trastuzumab-mertansine (T-DM1) Antibody-drug conjugate consisting of trastuzumab conjugated to DM1, which binds tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly/disassembly dynamics Breast cancer
KIT Imatinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor of c-kit GIST***
  Sunitinib Tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR2, PDGFRb and c-KIT GIST***
MEK Trametinib MEK1/2 inhibitor Melanoma
  1. *Solid tumor malignancies.
  2. **SCCHN = squamous cell cancers of the head and neck.
  3. ***GIST = gastrointestinal stromal tumors.