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Fig. 1 | Journal of Hematology & Oncology

Fig. 1

From: Exosomes in cancer: small particle, big player

Fig. 1

Biogenesis, release, structure, and uptake of exosomes. Exosomes are produced from the multivesicular bodies (MVBs) (also known as late endosomes). The membrane of the MVBs bulges inward to form exosomes. During this process, proteins (e.g., receptor, cytoplasmic proteins, tetraspanin), nucleic acids (e.g., DNA, mRNA, miRNA), and lipids (e.g., cholesterol, ceramide) are packed into exosomes in a cell type-dependent manner. MVBs fuse with the cellular membrane to release exosomes into the extracellular space. Several mechanisms have been suggested to mediate the uptake of exosomes, including a exosome fusion with the cellular membrane of the recipient cell, leading to the release of the exosomal cargo into the cytoplasm, b juxtracrine signaling through receptor-ligand interactions, c and endocytosis by phagocytosis

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