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Table 1 Overview on the function of exosomes in cancer

From: Exosomes in cancer: small particle, big player

Exosomal cargo Secreting cell Recipient cell Function Reference
EGFRvIII Glioblastoma cells Glioblastoma cells Promotes tumor cell growth [26]
Angiogenin, IL-8, VEGF Glioblastoma cells Endothelial cells Promotes tube formation [75]
∆Np73 Colon cancer cells Colon cancer cells Promotes tumor cell proliferation and therapy resistance [27]
KRAS Colon cancer cells (mutant KRAS) Colon cancer cells (wild-type KRAS) Enhances tumor cell growth [97]
MET Melanoma cells (highly metastatic) Bone marrow progenitor cells Promotes tumor growth and metastasis [39]
HIF-1α Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells (EBV-positive) NPC cells (EBV-negative) Promotes tumor cell migration and invasion [37]
αvβ6 Integrin Prostate cancer cells Prostate cancer cells Promotes tumor cell migration [98]
Survivin Cervical cancer cells Cervical cancer cells Inhibits genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis and promotes cell proliferation [25, 99]
Wnt5a Macrophages Breast cancer cells Enhances tumor cell invasion [100]
Wnt3a Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma side population (SP) cells Neighboring non-SP cells Modulates SP–non-SP transition and promotes tumor progression [24]
FasL Activated CD8+ T cells Melanoma cells, lung cancer cells Induces MMP9 expression and promotes lung metastasis [43]
IL-6, CCL2, fibronectin Multiple myeloma (MM) BM-MSCs MM cells Promotes tumor cell growth [29]
Hsp72 Murine thymoma, mammary carcinoma, colon carcinoma cells MDSCs Induces immunosuppression and enhances tumor growth [63]
TF Squamous cells, colon cancer cells Endothelial cells Promotes coagulation [71]
CD39, CD73 Bladder, colorectal, prostate, breast cancer cells T cells Induces adenosine production and inhibits T cell activation [101]
TGF-β Mesothelioma, prostate, bladder, colorectal, breast cancer cells Fibroblasts Induces myofibroblast differentiation and promotes tumor angiogenesis and growth [66, 67]
TGF-β Prostate cancer, gastric cancer MSCs Induces myofibroblast differentiation and promotes angiogenesis and invasiveness [68, 102]
TGF-β Pleural effusions of mesothelioma patients NK cells, CD8+ T cells Downregulates NKG2D expression and impairs cell killing activity [103]
MICA*008 Cervical cancer cells NK cells Decreases NKG2D expression and reduces NK cytotoxicity [104]
TGF-β, PGE2 Murine mammary adenocarcinoma cells Bone marrow myeloid cells (CD11b+Ly6G+) Induces MDSCs accumulation and immunosuppression [61]
CCL20 Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells Regulatory T cells Recruits and induces Treg conversion [59]
KIT Mast cells Lung cancer cells Accelerates cell proliferation [105]
KIT Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) cells Progenitor smooth muscle cells Increases tumor invasiveness [40]
Wnt11 Fibroblasts Breast cancer cells Promotes tumor metastasis [42]
MIF Pancreatic cancer cells Liver Kupffer cells Promotes metastasis [47]
Hsp70 Renal cancer cells (murine Renca cell line) MDSCs Induces MDSCs activation and enhances tumor growth [106]
Adrenomedullin Pancreatic cancer cells Adipocytes Promotes lipolysis [107]
S1P, CCL20, PGE2 Enteropathogenic bacteria-stimulated intestinal epithelial cells Th17 cells Promotes the development of colon cancer [108]
miR-9 Lung cancer, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, colorectal cancer cells Endothelial cells Induces tumor angiogenesis [109]
miR-125b, 130b, 155 Prostate cancer (PC) cells PC patient adipose-derived stem cells (pASCs) Induces neoplastic transformation [22]
miR-135b Multiple myeloma cells (under chronic hypoxia condition) Endothelial cells Enhances endothelial tube formation [36]
miR-10b Metastatic breast cancer cells Mammary epithelial cells Promotes cell migration [110]
miR-92a Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells Endothelial cells Promotes cell migration and tube formation [35]
miR-210 CML cells (under hypoxia condition) Endothelial cells Promotes angiogenic activity [34]
miR-223 IL-4-activated macrophages Breast cancer cells Promotes cell invasion [44]
miR-222 Drug-resistant breast cancer cells Drug-sensitive breast cancer cells Transmits chemoresistance [111]
miR-584, 517c, 378 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells HCC cells Promotes HCC cell growth and metastasis [112]
miR-21, 29a Lung cancer cells Macrophages Promotes tumor metastasis [46]
miR-105 Metastatic breast cancer cells Endothelial cells Destroys tight junction, induces vascular permeability, and promotes metastasis [33]
Pre-miRNAs, RISC-loading complex Breast cancer cells Non-tumorigenic epithelial cells Induces cell transformation [23]
miR-24-3p, 891a, 106a-5p, 20a-5p, 1908 Nasopharyngeal carcinoma T cells Promotes T cell dysfunction and tumor progression [60]
miR-221, 222 Gastric cancer tissue derived MSCs Gastric cancer cells Enhances tumor cell migration [60]
miR-122 Breast cancer cells Lung fibroblasts, brain astrocytes, and neurons Reprograms systemic energy metabolism and facilitates metastasis [113]
miR-23b Bladder cancer cells (cellular disposal by exosome release) None Acquires metastatic potential [38]
miR-503 Endothelial cells Breast cancer cells Impairs tumor cell growth [114]
miR-140 Preadipocytes Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) cells Enhances tumorigenesis [115]
miR-127, 197, 222, 223 Bone marrow stromal cells Breast cancer cells Decreases cell proliferation and induces cell quiescence [116]
TUC339 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells HCC cells Promotes tumor cell growth and inhibits cell adhesion [81]
Linc-ROR HCC cells HCC cells Reduces chemotherapy sensitivity [82]