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Table 2 Exosomes from distinct biofluids of cancer patients as biomarkers

From: Exosomes in cancer: small particle, big player

Exosomal cargos Cancer types Methods Clinical value Biofluids References
CD34 Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) Immunoaffinity capture Higher levels of CD34+ exosomes in AML patients Plasma [117]
EDIL-3/Del1 Bladder cancer Western blot Elevated expression in patients with high-grade bladder cancer Urine [118]
miR-101, 372, 373 Breast cancer qRT-PCR Highly expressed in breast cancer patients and elevated miR-373 expression in receptor-negative breast cancer patients Serum [119]
miR-21, 146a Cervical cancer qRT-PCR Elevated expression in exosomes from cervical cancer patients than healthy controls and HPV(+) subjects Cervicovaginal lavages [120]
Let-7a, miR-1229, 1246, 150, 21, 223, 23a Colon cancer qRT-PCR Highly expressed in exosomes from colon cancer patients Serum [121]
CD147, CD9 Colon cancer Exoscreen Higher levels of CD147/CD9 double-positive extracellular vesicles in cancer patients than healthy controls Serum [122]
miR-17-92a cluster Colon cancer qRT-PCR Elevated expression in cancer patients and higher levels predict poorer prognoses Serum [123]
miR-21 Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) qRT-PCR Exosomal levels of miR-21 are significantly higher in patients with ESCC than those with benign diseases Serum [80]
LINC00152 Gastric cancer qRT-PCR Elevated expression levels in gastric cancer patients than healthy controls Plasma [83]
EGFRvIII (mRNA) Glioblastoma Nested RT-PCR Mutated EGFRvIII could be detected in exosomes from 7 of 25 glioblastoma patients but not that from 30 healthy subjects Serum [75]
miR-718 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) qRT-PCR Decreased expression of miR-718 in exosomes from HCC cases with recurrence after liver transplantation compared with those without recurrence Serum [124]
miR-21 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) qRT-PCR Higher exosomal levels in patients with HCC than those with hepatitis or healthy controls Serum [125]
miR-17-3p, 21, 106a, 146, 155, 191, 192, 203, 205, 210, 212, 214 Lung cancer miRNA array Total exosome and miRNA levels are upregulated in lung cancer patients and these 12 miRNAs could be detected in exosomes Plasma [76]
LRG1 Lung cancer Western blot Patients with non-small cell lung cancer have an increased LRG1 expression in exosomes compared to healthy controls Urine [126]
TYRP2, VLA-4, Hsp70, MET Melanoma Western blot, multiplex protein analysis The levels of these 4 proteins are increased in exosomes from stage III and IV patients compared to stage I patients as well as healthy controls Plasma [39]
CD63, caveolin-1 Melanoma In-house sandwich ELISA (Exotest) Melanoma patients have more CD63- and caveolin-1-positive exosomes compared to healthy controls Plasma [127]
Galectin-9 Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) Western blot Exosomes from NPC patients but not that from healthy controls contain galectin-9 Serum [128]
Claudin-4 Ovarian cancer Western blot Claudin-4 could be detected in exosomes from 32 of 63 ovarian cancer patients but only 1 of 50 healthy controls Plasma [129]
miR-21, 141, 200a, 200b, 200c, 203, 205, 214 Ovarian cancer miRNA array The levels of these 8 miRNAs are elevated in exosomes from ovarian cancer patients compared to healthy controls and benign tumors Serum [72]
miR-1246, 4644, 3976, 4306 Pancreatic cancer qRT-PCR Upregulated expression in pancreatic cancer patients compared to healthy controls Serum [130]
PTEN Prostate cancer Western blot PTEN is exclusively expressed in exosomes of prostate cancer patients compared to healthy controls Plasma [131]
Survivin Prostate cancer Western blot, ELISA Prostate cancer patients have more survivin-positive exosomes compared to healthy controls as well as patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia Plasma [132]
PSA, PSMA Prostate cancer Western blot Detected in 20 of 24 exosomes from prostate cancer patients but not in healthy controls Urine [133]
miR-1290, miR-375 Prostate cancer qRT-PCR Highly expressed in castration-resistant prostate cancer patients and their levels are significantly associated with poor overall survival Plasma [134]
LncRNA-p21 Prostate cancer qRT-PCR Higher level of exosomal lncRNA-p21 in patients with prostate cancer than those with benign hyperplasia Plasma [135]