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Table 1 Determinants of CSC and EMT in HCC

From: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal plasticity of cancer stem cells: therapeutic targets in hepatocellular carcinoma

Molecular regulator Signaling pathway Study
Cell surface markers
 K19+ TGF-β-Smad Kawai et al. [24]
 CD44+ ERK/Snail; Gao et al. [78]
  TGF-β/Smad; Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin Park et al. [79]
 CD133+ NF-kB Liu et al. [26]
 CD90+   Yamashita et al. [45]
 EpCAM   Yamashita et al. [45]
 Vimentin+CD133-   Mitra et al. [70]
Transcription factors
 Nanog Stat3/Snail Yin et al. [25]; Yu et al. [80]
 Oct4 Stat3/Snail Yin et al. [25]
 Slug   Sun et al. [69]
 Sox9 TGF-β/Wnt/β-catenin Kawai et al. [82]
Oncogene
 Malestrom Akt/GSK-3β/Snail Liu et al. [81]
Microenvironmental cues
 Hepatic stellate cells HGF/Met Yu et al. [91]
 Tumor-associated macrophages TGF-β1 Fan et al. [76]
 Artemin   Zhang et al. [83]
 Hypoxia Akt Zhang et al. [83]
Twist1/Bmi1 Liu et al. [92]
HIF-1α/Artemin/Akt Zhang et al. [83]
Oxidative stress
 HCV infection Ca2+ signaling Iqbal et al. [94]
 Folate deficiency miR-22 Su et al. [95]
Viral infection
 HCV geneotype 2A Hypoxia/osteopontin/Akt/GSK-3β/β-catenin Kwon et al. [84]
Iqbal et al. [94]
miRNA
 miR-200a Wnt/β-catenin Liu et al. [87]
 miR-125b TGF-β/SMAD2/4 Zhou et al. [72]
 miR-148b   Liu et al. [88]
 miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-122, miR-145 DDX3 Li et al. [89]
Sphere formation Notch Li et al. [71]