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Table 1 Effect of Natural Compounds Targeting Major Stem Cell Signaling Pathways

From: Natural compounds targeting major cell signaling pathways: a novel paradigm for osteosarcoma therapy

Major signaling pathways Compounds Target Effect References
Notch Curcumin Downregulates transcription and translation Notch-1 and downstream genes Hes-1, Hey-1, and Hey-2 mRNA levels 1Induces apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species [43, 55]
Diallyl trisulfide Targets Notch-1 intracellular domain Decreases expression of Notch downstream genes. Increases expression of potential tumor suppressor micro RNAs (miR-143 and miR-145) and decreases tumor promoting micro RNA miR-21
WNT/β-catenin Resveratrol β-catenin; histone H2AX Apoptosis of OS cells by decreasing mRNA and protein expression of β-catenin and c-Myc Histone H2AX phosphorylation causes telomere instability and DNA damage [24, 51, 54]
Apigenin β-catenin Decreases protein expression of β-catenin and decreases matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) expression
Hedgehog Cyclopamine Binds to SMO Prevents signal transduction to GLIS [30]
PI3/AKT Sulforaphane ERK and AKT Suppresses ERK and AKT phosphorylation, induces apoptosisthrough G2/M phase arrest [46]