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Table 2 Summary of current PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade agents in clinical trials

From: Blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in glioma: a potential new treatment strategy

Target Clinical trial identifier Blockade agent Phase Patient population Design Study start date Current stage
PD-1 NCT02550249 Nivolumab II Primary and recurrent GBM Preoperative neoadjuvant June 2015 Recruiting participants
NCT02423343 Nivolumab I/II Recurrent or refractory NSCLC HCC GBM Combination with galunisertib October 2015 Recruiting participants
NCT02017717 (CheckMate 143) Nivolumab III Recurrent GBM Alone or in combination with the IPI Compared to bevacizumab January 2014 Ongoing
NCT02311920 Nivolumab I Primary GBM IPI and/or NIVO in combination with temozolomide April 2015 Recruiting participants
NCT02337491 Pembrolizumab II Recurrent GBM With or without bevacizumab February 2015 Ongoing
NCT02311582 Pembrolizumab I/II Recurrent GBM Combination with MRI-guided laser ablation August 2015 Recruiting participants
NCT01952769 Pidilizumab I/II DIPG and recurrent GBM Alone February 2014 Recruiting participants
PD-L1 NCT02336165 MEDI4736 II Primary and recurrent GBM Combination with radiotherapy and bevacizumab February 2015 Recruiting participants
NCT01375842 MPDL3280A I Solid tumors (include GBM) Alone June 2011 Recruiting participants
  1. This information of clinical trials came from the web site of (The last search was conducted on October 15, 2016).
  2. Abbreviations: GBM glioblastoma, NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer, HCC hepatocellular carcinoma, NIVO nivolumab, IPI ipilimumab, DIPG diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma