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Table 2 Potential predictive and prognostic biomarker evaluation and technologies

From: Checkpoint inhibitors in hematological malignancies

Technology Target cells/tissue Purpose Reference
Immunohistochemistry FFPE tissue Analysis of protein expression in tumor cells
Immune cell profiling in TME
[11, 157]
Flow cytometry Blood, fresh/frozen tumor tissue Analysis of different subsets of immune cells [141]
ELISA Blood Analysis of cytokine
Chemokine and antibodies against tumor-specific antigen
Enzyme-linked immunospot Blood Quantification of T or B cells, Analysis of cytokine and chemokine [158]
Protein microarray Blood Analysis of antibody signature [159]
Gene expression profiling Blood, fresh/frozen/FFPE tumor tissue Analysis of gene signatures in tumor/immune cells [145]
TCR deep sequencing Blood T cell receptor profiling [160]
NGS (WES, RNA-seq) Fresh/FFPE tissue Mutational load
Prediction of immunogenecity of tumor neoantigens
[92, 143]
Epigenomics Blood, fresh/frozen/FFPE tumor tissue Analysis of immune cell specific epigenetic changes [161]
  1. FFPE formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, TME tumor microenvironment, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, NGS next-generation sequencing, WES whole exome sequencing