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Table 4 CD40+ MC is a novel and stronger pro-inflammatory MC subset compared with intermediated MC

From: Metabolism-associated danger signal-induced immune response and reverse immune checkpoint-activated CD40+ monocyte differentiation

Inflammatory surface maker Pro-inflammatory MC Anti-inflammatory MC
CD40+ MC (CD40+CD14+) Intermediate MC (CD14++CD16+) CD40 MC (CD40CD14+) Non-classical MC (CD14+CD16++)
TC activation receptor
 CD86 +++ ++ + +
 CD80 + + + +
 LA-DR ++ ++ + +++
Adhesion receptor
 CD62L ++ ++ ++ +
 CD11b +++ +++ + +
 CD49d +++ +++ + +++
Chemokine receptor
 CCR2 +++ + ++ +
 CCR5 +++ +++ + +
 CX3CR1 +++ +++ ++ +++
  1. Inflammatory features of human CD40+ MC were characterized using nine inflammatory surface makers by flow cytometry analysis (experimental details in Yang et al. [15]). WBC from healthy subjects were isolated and stained with anti-CD14, anti-CD16, and anti-CD40 antibodies and co-stained with surface markers for TC activation (CD86, CD80, and HLA-DR), adhesion receptors (CD62L, CD11b, and CD49d), and chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1). Compared with the previously established inflammatory intermediate MC subset, CD40+ MC expressed higher levels of CD86 and CCR2 and similar levels of other inflammatory markers. CD40 MC expressed much lower levels of HLA-DR, CD49d, and CX3CR1 and similar levels of other inflammatory markers compared with non-classic MC
  2. Abbreviations: MC monocyte, TC T cell, WBC white blood cells