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Table 1 Cell surface antigens expressed on AML compared with HSC

From: Chimeric antigen receptors for adoptive T cell therapy in acute myeloid leukemia

Antigen AML expression Function Normal tissue expression Comment Reference
CD44 100%
Mediates cell adhesion and can transduce signals Ubiquitously expressed with many alternatively spliced isoforms Cancer stem cell marker on several solid tumors [123]
CD45RA >90%
Regulates a variety of cellular
processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation
naive T cells;
CD34+CD38+ normal progenitors
A specific marker for leukemia stem cell subpopulations in AML [124]
CLL-1 (CLEC12A, DCAL-2, MICL) ≈95%
ND Restricted to hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage Expression may identify minimal residual disease and predict relapse [81, 125, 126]
CD96 66%
May have a function in NK cell adhesion and/or activation Resting and activated T cells and NK cells, possibly intestinal epithelium Expressed on only 5% of CD34+CD38CD90+ cells in bone marrow [127]
CD47 100%
Binds SIRPa and inhibits phagocytosis Widely expressed at low levels Differential expression facilitated prospective separation of residual normal HSC from LSC [128, 129]
CD32 34% (samples) Fc-g receptor 2 (FCGR2) Restricted to hematopoietic cells Not expressed on functional HSC [130]
CD25 25%
High-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL2RA) Restricted to hematopoietic cells Not expressed on functional HSC [130]
most AML types (except for M3) An important regulator of Th1 cell immunity and tolerance induction Not expressed in CD34+CD38 normal HSCs or the majority of CD34+CD38+ normal progenitors An immune checkpoint, also a Th1-specific cell surface protein that regulates macrophage activation [131133]
  1. ND not detected, NK natural killer, HSC hematopoietic stem cell, LSC leukemia stem cell, SIRPa signal regulatory protein-a