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Table 2 MALAT1-associated clinical and biological features of human cancer (↑ indicates increase; ↓ indicates decrease)

From: MALAT1: a druggable long non-coding RNA for targeted anti-cancer approaches

Tumor type Associated clinical features of high MALAT1 tumors MALAT1 molecular target(s) Phenotypic effects induced by MALAT1 inhibition in preclinical models Reference(s)
Non-small cell lung cancer ↓ survival of stage I NSCLC patients; ↓ overall survival; ↑ metastasis; ↑ in peripheral blood of NSCLC; ↑ in advanced tumor stages and in lymph-node metastasis AIM1, LAYN, HMMR, SLC26A2, CCT4, ROD1, CTHRC1,FHL1, CXCL5 ↓ migration and invasion in vitro; ↓ tumor growth in vivo; reduction or suppression of metastasis [123,124,125,126,127,128]
Breast cancer MALAT1-positive association with estrogen and progesterone receptors’ expression; ↓ recurrence-free survival in ER-negative patients CD133, HuR; VEGF-A ↓ tumor growth and differentiation into cystic tumors; metastasis reduction; ↓ branching morphogenesis;
↑cell adhesion; ↓ migration
[129,130,131,132] [194]
Hepatocellular carcinoma ↑ risk of HCC recurrence after liver transplantation; ↑ in sera of arsenite-exposed people and of HCC patients; ↑ in III-IV TNM stages; ↓ overall survival of HCC patients TRF2; p53; HIF2α ↓ in vitro and in vivo tumor growth [78, 141,142,143,144,145]
Ovarian cancer Correlation with FIGO stages; ↑ in peripheral blood correlating with distant metastasis Matrix metalloproteinases; miR-506 ↓cell proliferation, migration and invasion; G0/G1 cell cycle arrest; ↑ of apoptosis [161,162,163,164] [195, 196]
Cervical cancer ↑ lymph-node metastasis; ↓ overall survival Vimentin, β-catenin and E-cadherin ↓cell viability and proliferation in vitro and in vivo; ↓ migration and invasion [135,136,137,138,139]
Esophageal cancer ↓ survival of patients undergoing radical resection of middle thoracic ESCC; positive correlation with pT stage and negative correlation with disease-free and overall survival; ↑ lymph nodes metastasis; ↓ disease-free survival β-catenin; Lin28;
EMT/stemness-related genes (OCT4, E-cadherin)
↓in vitro cell growth; ↓colony formation ability, migratory and invasive capabilities; G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and ↑ of apoptosis; ↓ tumor sphere formation; ↓ tumor formation in vivo [147, 148]
Renal cell carcinoma ↓ overall survival Twist, E-cadherin, EZH2, miR-200, ZEB2 ↓cell proliferation and invasion [169,170,171,172]
Prostate cancer ↑ of PSA-positive biopsies; ↑ in bone marrow of CRPC patients Estrogen receptors (ERα/ERβ); EZH2 ↓invasion and migration in vitro and in vivo [158,159,160]
Osteoarcoma and Ewing sarcoma ↑ in serum correlating with worse overall survival; ↑ in tissues correlating with distant metastasis E-cadherin, HMGB1; SYK-target genes ↓cell proliferation and migration, cell cycle arrest, ↑ apoptosis, both in vitro and in vivo [79]
Bladder cancer ↑ metastasis EMT genes (E-cadherin, N-cadherin) ↓ cell migration and metastasis [85] [177,178,179]
Brain cancer Positive association with III-IV WHO grades and tumor size; ↑ MALAT1 in temozolomide-resistant patients; ↓ overall survival miR-155; FBXW7; ERK/MAPK pathway; MMP2; thymidylate synthase ↓ tumor growth, migration and invasiveness in vitro; in vivo ↓ inhibition of tumor growth in vivo; restoration of temozolomide sensitivity; eradication of GBM stem cells [180,181,182,183,184,185,186]
Endometroid endometrial carcinoma Association with FIGO stages PCDH10-Wnt/β-catenin; miR200c ↓ cell proliferation, migration and invasion [76, 140]
Gastric cancer ↑ peritoneal metastasis; ↑ distant metastasis; ↓ overall survival of stage III and IV patients miR-122/IGF-1R axis; PCDH10; miR-23b ↓ cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration and invasion; ↑ apoptosis; abrogation of chemoresistance [149,150,151,152,153]
Colorectal cancer ↑ lymph-node metastases; ↓ overall survival PRKA kinase anchor protein 9 (AKAP-9); CCL5;
Abrogation of EMT; reversion of oxaliplatin resistance [173,174,175,176]
Pancreatic cancer ↑ overall survival; ↓ progression-free survival of patients undergoing gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as first-line treatment for locally advanced or advanced disease Hippo-YAP1 pathway;
P62, LAMP-2
↓ cell proliferation and migration, ↑ of apoptosis, in vitro and in xenograft murine models in vivo [154,155,156,157]
Multiple myeloma ↑ MGUS, SMM, MM, and PCL; ↓ circulating MALAT1 in MM patients; ↑ MALAT1 in bone marrow mononuclear cells from MM patients LTBP3; SP1; NRF1-NRF2/Keap1 pathway; proteasome-associated genes; miR-29b ↓ of in vitro and in vivo tumor growth and induction of apoptosis; ↓ clonogenicity; ↑ sensitivity to bortezomib [27, 81, 101, 190]
Mantle cell lymphoma ↓ overall survival p21 and p27 cell cycle inhibitors ↓ of cell proliferation, ↑ sensitivity to apoptosis; cell cycle arrest at G1/S transition [192]
T cell lymphoma ↓ overall survival PRC2 components [193]