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Table 2 The dual effects of RT on tumor microenvironment

From: Abscopal effect of radiotherapy combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors

Effect of RT Pro-immunogenic Anti-immunogenic
Cytokine secretion IFN I TGF-β
IFN II CSF-1
IL-1β IL-6
IL-18 IL-10
Chemokine secretion CXCL9 CXCL12
  CXCL10  
  CXCL16  
Leukocyte infiltration DCs MDSCs
Effector T cells Treg cells
M1 macrophages M2 macrophages
Signal molecule expression MHC-I PD-L1
STING Trex 1
Fas  
  1. RT radiotherapy, IFN interferon, IL interleukin, TGF transforming growth factor, CSF colony-stimulating factor, CXCL CXC-motif chemokine ligand, DCs dendritic cells, MDSCs myeloid-derived suppressor cells, Treg regulatory T lymphocytes, MHC major histocompatibility complex, STING stimulator of interferon genes, Trex three prime repair exonuclease, PD-L1 programmed cell death-ligand 1