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Table 3 Post-induction and pre-transplantation MRD responses in representative, selected series of adult/elderly Ph+ ALL, by type of TKI and associated induction chemotherapy. The single randomized trial is indicated by an asterisk (*)

From: Treatment and monitoring of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukemia patients: recent advances and remaining challenges

Study (author, ref.) TKI-based therapy No. of patients with CHR Post-induction MRD (%)1
CMR MMR
TKI Chemotherapy
Daver (2015) [69] IM Intensive (Hyper-CVAD) 51 45 (12 weeks) 38 (median 10 weeks)
Pfeifer (2010) [63] Intensive (GMALL) 247 12.5–33 (consolidation 1)2
Chalandon (2015) [68] Intensive (GRAALL)* 121 9.5 (cycle 1)
28.6 (cycle 2)
43.1 (cycle 1)
66.1 (cycle 2)
Non-intensive (GRAALL)* 133 9.9 (cycle 1)
22.6 (cycle 2)
45.5 (cycle 1)
64.5 (cycle 2)
Vignetti (2007) [79] None (GIMEMA)3 29 14
Ravandi (2015) [72] DAS Intensive (Hyper-CVAD) 69 65 (median 4 weeks) 28 (median 4 weeks)
Rousselot (2016) [76] Non-intensive (EWALL) 67 20 (cycle 1)
24 (cycle 2)
60 (cycle 1)
65 (cycle 2)
Chiaretti (2015) [58] None (GIMEMA)3 58 18.6
Kim (2015) [73] NIL Intensive 82 56 (at CHR) 79 (at CHR)
Ottmann (2018) [78] Non-intensive (EWALL) 68 14 (cycle 1)
58 (consolidation 2)
41 (cycle 1)
86 (consolidation 2)
Chalandon (2018) [77] Non-intensive (GRAALL) 60 80 (cycle 2)
93 (cycle 4)
Papayannidis (2013) [81] IM/NIL None (GIMEMA)4 34 35.4 (week 6)
46.6 (week 12)
Jabbour (2018) [75] PON Intensive (Hyper-CVAD) 76 83 (median 10 weeks) 97 (median 3 weeks)
Martinelli (2017) [83] None (GIMEMA)3 38 60.6
  1. 1Non-standard definitions according to single studies: CMR, complete molecular response (BCR-ABL1 MRD < 0.01–0.001% or undetectable); MMR, major molecular response (BCR-ABL1 MRD < 0.1%); results after treatment course/week/time as indicated
  2. 2IM starting with induction Ib vs. Ia, respectively
  3. 3Plus systemic corticosteroids and intrathecal prophylaxis (methotrexate)
  4. 4Alternating schedule q6 weeks
  5. Abbreviations: IM imatinib, DAS dasatinib, NIL nilotinib, PON ponatinib, CHR complete hematological response, CMR complete molecular response, MMR major molecular response