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Fig. 2 | Journal of Hematology & Oncology

Fig. 2

From: Cancer-associated fibroblasts: an emerging target of anti-cancer immunotherapy

Fig. 2

Potential cellular sources of CAFs. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) can originate from diverse cell populations. Sources of CAFs include pre-existing resident fibroblasts and stellate cells (which become CAFs through activation), epithelial cells (via epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, EMT), endothelial cells (via endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition, EndMT), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and circulating fibrocytes (via recruitment), as well as pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes (through transdifferentiation). ECM extracellular matrix; α-SMA α-smooth muscle actin; S100A4 fibroblast specific protein-1, also called FSP-1

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