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Fig. 4 | Journal of Hematology & Oncology

Fig. 4

From: Cancer-associated fibroblasts: an emerging target of anti-cancer immunotherapy

Fig. 4

Immunotherapies that target CAFs. Four general approaches that target cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) for cancer immunotherapy. Fibroblast activation protein+ (FAP+) CAFs can be directly eliminated by transgenic technologies, immunotherapies, and oncolytic adenovirus. Targeting the important signals and effectors of CAFs, such as CX-chemokine ligand 12-CX chemokine receptor 4 (CXCL12-CXCR4) interaction, Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK-STAT3) pathway, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and Hedgehog signaling pathway, can be used to inhibit the function of CAFs. A reprogramming strategy such as vitamin A and vitamin D can be adopted to dedifferentiate activated CAFs to resident (normalized) fibroblasts. CAF-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and associated signaling pathway can be targeted to induce stromal depletion. CAR chimeric antigen receptor, mAb monoclonal antibody, MDSC myeloid-derived suppressor cell, TAM tumor-associated macrophage, Treg cell regulatory T cell

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