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Table 1 Commonly used CAF markers, their cellular origins and functions

From: Cancer-associated fibroblasts: an emerging target of anti-cancer immunotherapy

Marker Cell origins Immune functions Tumorigenic functions Refs
α-SMA Normal fibroblasts, quiescent stellate cells Macrophage recruitment and M2 polarization, MDSCs and Tregs recruitment and differentiation, T cell anergy, NK cell inactivation, DCs tolerance and immaturation, TH2 and N2 polarization Immuno-suppression, ECM remodeling, tumor cell proliferation, metabolic reprogramming, cancer stemness [5, 7, 8, 49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87,88,89,90]
FAP Normal fibroblasts, quiescent stellate cells T cell anergy, NK cells inactivation, TH2 polarization, MDSCs and Tregs recruitment Immuno-suppression, ECM remodeling, tumor progression and metastasis [8, 10, 40, 41, 97,98,99,100,101,102,103]
S100A4 Epithelial cells, endothelial cells Macrophage recruitment and M2 polarization Immuno-suppression, ECM remodeling, carcinogenesis [106]
PDGFRα/β Normal fibroblasts, BMSCs, pericytes, vascular smooth muscular cells T cell anergy and apoptosis Immuno-suppression, tumor growth [105]
PDPN Epithelial cells T cell anergy, macrophage recruitment and M2 polarization, Tregs recruitment Immuno-suppression, tumor growth [107, 108]
CD90   T cell exhaustion Immuno-suppression, tumor cell migration [83, 84]
Collagen I Fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscular cells Macrophage recruitment and M2 polarization Immuno-suppression, ECM remodeling, angiogenesis [111]
  1. α-SMA α-smooth muscle actin. FAP fibroblast activation protein, PDGFRα/β platelet derived growth factor receptor-α/β, PDPN podoplanin, MDSCs myeloid-derived suppressor cell, Tregs regulatory T cell, NK cells natural killer cells, N2 type2 neutrophils, DC dendritic cell, ECM extracellular matrix