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Table 2 Proteins/miRNAs in TEXs modulate the development and function of MDSCs

From: Tumor-derived exosomes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and tumor microenvironment

Functional components Type of cancer Observation Refs
Proteins
PGE2 Mammary carcinoma TEXs with abundant PGE2 and TGF-β enhance the expansion and immunosuppression of MDSCs depending on MyD88 pathway by increasing the production of IL-6 and VEGF. [114, 115]
TGF-β
Hsp72 Colon carcinoma /mammary carcinoma/lymphoma Hsp72 expressed on the membrane of exosomes from tumor cells triggers STAT3 activation in MDSCs depending on the TLR2/MyD88 pathway through autocrine of IL-6. [116]
IL-10 Multiple myeloma Exosomal IL-10 and IL-16 from MM cells increase the accumulation and enhance the suppressive function of BM MDSCs by activating STAT3 pathway. MM exosomes can also reduce the survival of PMN-MDSCs, while increasing the survival of M-MDSCs. [113, 117]
IL-16
miRNAs
miRNA-21 Hypoxia-induced glioma miRNA-21 and miR-10a in exosomes from hypoxia-induced glioma promote the expansion and immunosuppression of MDSCs by targeting PTEN and RORα. [118]
miR-10a
Oral squamous cell carcinoma Hypoxic TEXs enhance the suppressive function of MDSCs and attenuate γδ T-cell activity in a miR-21/PTEN/PD-L1-axis-dependent manner. [119]
miR-494-3p Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma PDAC-exosomes create an immunosuppressive myeloid cell background by increasing calcium fluxes through the transfer of SMAD4-related differentially expressed miR-1260a and miR-494-3p. [120]
miR-1260a
miRNA-155 B- cell-derived chronic lymphocytic leukemia High level of exosomal miRNA-155 from CLL cells can be uptaken by monocytes and induce IDO expressing MDSCs through STAT1 pathway. [121]
miR-126-3p Glioma/lung cancer MDSCs internalizing TEXs display enhanced expression of suppressive molecules and differing miRNA profiles including miR-126-3p, miR-27b, miR-320, and miR-342-3p. [122]
miR-27b
miR-320
miR-342-3p
miR-29a Glioma TEXs from glioma mediate the expansion and function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells through microRNA-29a/Hbp1 and microRNA-92a/Prkar1a pathways. [123]
miR-92a
  1. Contains the detailed information of proteins and miRNAs in TEXs discussed in the review, which can modulate the development and function of MDSCs