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Table 2 MDSCs in multiple myeloma

From: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in hematological malignancies: friends or foes

Disease cases (n) MDSC subgroups/phenotype definition Clinical finding Mechanism/intervention Year/reference
MM, n = 15 G-MDSCs
CD11b + CD14-CD33 + CD15+
PB and BM
Higher MDSCs vs. healthy donor
S100A9 knockout reduced MDSC accumulation in BM after injection of MM cells 2013 [41]
MM, n = 93 M-MDSCs
Higher MDSCs diagnosis vs. healthy donor
Higher MDSCs in relapsed MM
Decreased M-MDSCs after treatment indicated good response
MM cells were able to induce the accumulation of M-MDSCs in vitro, MDSCs induced Treg 2014 [44]
MM, n = 17 G-MDSCs
CD11b + CD14-CD33 + CD15 + HLA-DRlow
Higher MDSCs vs. healthy donor
associated with the activity of disease in MM
MM cells induced the development of MDSCs from healthy donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells 2013 [45]
MM, n = 6 G-MDSCs
CD11b + CD14-CD33 + CD15 + HLA-DRlow
Higher MDSCs in progressive MM vs. healthy donor MM MDSCs induced the generation of Treg
G-CSF increased G-MDSCs
2014 [46]
MM, n = 45 G-MDSCs
CD11b + CD14-CD33 + CD15 + HLA-DRlow
MGUS and MM were able to generate the same amount of MDSC, only MM-MSC-educated G-MDSC exhibited suppressive ability MM G-MDSCs upregulated immune-suppressive factors as ARG1 and TNFalpha, expressed higher levels of PROK2, showed ability to digest bone matrix. 2016 [47]
MM, n = 72 G-MDSCs
Higher frequencies of G-MDSCs in both the PB and BM from MM patients, significantly correlated with disease burden by ISS stage. G-MDSCs enhanced the side population, sphere formation, and expression of cancer stem cell core genes in MM cells. Silencing of piRNA-823 in MM cells reduced the stemness of multiple myeloma stem cells maintained by G-MDSCs 2019 [48]