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Table 2 Comparison of different TCR-based immunotherapy strategies with CAR-T therapy

From: Targeting cancers through TCR-peptide/MHC interactions

NameStructureAntigen recognizedMHC restrictedAdvantagesDisadvantagesReferences
TCR-TTCR-engineered T cellspeptide/MHCYes• sensitive recognition
• strong signaling transduction through integrated T cell signaling pathway
• long time persistence with memory immunity for years
• applicable for all TCRs
• MHC-restricted
• complicated in vitro preparation for each patient and technique-demanding
• potential TCRs mismatch
• costly
103-118
ImmTACTCR-anti CD3 scFv conjugatepeptide/MHCYes• off-the-shelf
• easy to penetrate in vivo
• activate normal T cells through anti-CD3 signaling pathway
• No TCRs mismatch
• MHC-restricted
• restricted to limited number of TCRs with solubility
• half life in serum is hours
• clinical effect needs verification
121,124,125,126
scTCR/IL2scTCR-IL-2 fusion proteinpeptide/MHCYes• off-the-shelf
• easy to penetrate in vivo
• activate multiple types of immune cells through paracrine nature of IL-2/IL-2R signaling pathway
• no system toxicity of IL-2
• MHC-restricted
• restricted to limited number of TCRs with solubility
• half life in serum is hours
• clinical effect needs verification
127-130
scTCR/IgG1scTCR-Fc conjugatepeptide/MHCYes• off-the-shelf
• easy to penetrate in vivo
• activate NK, macrophages, monocytes through FC/FcR interaction (ADCC)
• MHC-restricted
• restricted to limited number of TCRs with solubility
• half life in serum is hours
• clinical effect needs verification
131
CAR-TChimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cellssurface antigenNo• not MHC-restricted
• high affinity of recognition
• strong signaling transduction through CD3ζ signaling pathway
• long time persistence with memory immunity for years
• restricted to cell surface antigens
• Complicated in vitro preparation process for each patient and technique-demanding
• costly
1,2,5-10