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Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of using PTDX models and cancer organoids for cancer research

From: Emerging organoid models: leaping forward in cancer research

FeaturePDTX modelsCancer organoids
Generation efficiency10%–70% [7, 8]70%–100%
Tumor tissue sourceSurgically resected specimensSurgically resected or biopsy needle specimens
Retention of heterogeneityRetentionRetention
Generation time4–8 months4–12 weeks [9,10,11,12]
Passage efficiencyLowHigh
Genetic manipulationNot amenableAmenable
High-throughput screening for drug discoveryNoYes
Immune componentsWithoutRetention [13,14,15,16]
CostHighLow