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Table 2 Cancer organoid models: published reports

From: Emerging organoid models: leaping forward in cancer research

Tumor organoid modelCell derivedResearch meansAchievementRefs
Breast cancer organoidsPatientQuantitative optical imagingPredict the therapeutic response of anti-tumor drug in individual patients[23]
MiceOrganoid culture and xenotransplantationIdentify an early dissemination and metastasis mechanism for Her2+ breast cancer[24]
Liver cancer organoidsPatientOrganoid culture and xenotransplantationEstablishment of hepatocellular carcinoma organoids from needle biopsies, and cancer organoids maintain the genomic features of the original tumors for up to 32 weeks[11]
Gastric cancer organoidsPatientWhole-genome sequencingIdentify mutated driver genes of promoting escape from anoikis in organoid culture[25]
MurineGene editingFirst reveal the potential metastatic role of TGFBR2 loss-of-function in diffuse gastric cancer[26]
Colorectal cancer organoidsHuman stem cellCRISPR-Cas9Verify the deficient of key DNA repair gene MLH1 role in drives tumorigenesis[27]
Human stem cellCRISPR-Cas9 and orthotopic transplantationVisualize the different steps of the in vivo CRC metastatic cascade[28]
Prostate cancer organoidsPatient, MouseOrganoid culture and xenotransplantationShow the role of nucleoporins in the progression of pancreatic cancer[29]
PatientOrganoid culture and xenotransplantationMaintain prostate cancer-specific mutations and are suitable for in vitro and in vivo drug testing[30]
Pancreatic cancer organoidsPatientOrganoid cultureThe treatment profiles are parallel to the patient’s outcomes and the chemo-sensitivity of patient can be assessed[31]
PatientTumor organoids co-culture with stromal cellsEvaluate cancer-stroma cell interactions[32]
Glioblastoma organoidsPatientOrganoid culture and xenotransplantationPatient-derived organoids display histological features and recapitulate the hypoxic gradients in vivo[33]