Skip to main content

Table 1 The specific function of each m6A-related enzyme

From: m6A-binding proteins: the emerging crucial performers in epigenetics

Categoriesm6A-related enzymesLocationMechanismReferences
m6A writersMETTL3NucleusCatalyzing methyl-group transfer[8, 9]
METTL14NucleusForming a heterodimer with METTL3 and strengthening its catalytic activity[8, 9]
WTAPNucleusPromoting METTL3-METTL14 complex localization to nuclear speckles and modulating their recruitment to RNA targets[10]
VIRMANucleusPreferentially mediating m6A modification in the 3’UTR and near stop codon, and affecting the selection of methylation sites[11]
RBM15/RBM15BNucleusMediating m6A methylation of lncRNA XIST[12]
ZC3H13NucleusInducing the nuclear localization of Zc3h13-WTAP- Virilizer-Hakai complex[13]
METTL16NucleusFunctioning as a conserved U6 snRNA methyltransferase and regulating the abundance of intracellular SAM[14, 15]
m6A erasersFTONucleusAbrogating the m6A levels of targeted RNA via the oxidative demethylation activity[16]
ALKBH5NucleusRemoving the m6A modification of nuclear RNA[17]
m6A readersYTHDF1CytoplasmAugmenting RNA translation through interacting with the translation initiation factor eIF3[18]
YTHDF2CytoplasmPromoting RNA degradation by recruiting the CCR4-NOT deadenylase complex[19, 20]
YTHDF3CytoplasmNot only promoting the translation of methylated RNA in cooperation with YTHDF1, but also strengthening RNA decay mediated by YTHDF2[21, 22]
YTHDC1NucleusMediating alternative splicing, facilitating m6A-methylated RNA nuclear export, and promoting X chromosome genes transcriptional silencing mediated by XIST[12, 23, 24]
YTHDC2CytoplasmIncreasing the translation efficiency of RNA[25, 26]
HNRNPA2B1NucleusAccelerating the processing of primary miRNA, regulating alternative splicing, and acting as a “m6A-switch”[27, 28]
HNRNPCNucleusParticipating in the pre-mRNA processing and functioning as a “m6A-switch”[29, 30]
HNRNPGNucleusModulating pre-mRNA alternative splicing and acting as a “m6A-switch”[31]
IGF2BP1CytoplasmFortifying RNA stability[32]
IGF2BP2CytoplasmIncreasing the stability of RNA[32]
IGF2BP3CytoplasmFacilitating RNA stabilization[32]