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Table 1 Non-coding RNAs shuttled via exosomes in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment

From: Non-coding RNAs shuttled via exosomes reshape the hypoxic tumor microenvironment

Non-coding RNA Cancer type Exosome isolation method NcRNA identification method Donor cell Recipient cell Function Mechanism Ref.
miR-21 glioma ultracentrifugation RNA-sequencing cancer cell MDSC promote MDSC expansion and activation regulating PTEN/PI3K/AKT axis [81]
oral squamous cell carcinoma commercial kit RNA-sequencing cancer cell γδT-cell stimulate γδT-cell expansion and function inducing PD-L1 expression though targeting PTEN [82]
oral squamous cell carcinoma commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer cell cancer cell promote migration and invasion inducing EMT [72]
lung cancer ultracentrifugation qRT-PCR cancer cell cancer cell promote chemoresistance downregulating PTEN and PI3K/ATK pathway [83]
miR-21-3p ovarian cancer commercial kit miRNA microarray cancer cell macrophage induce M2 polarization regulating SOCS4/5/STAT3 pathway [84]
miR-210 leukemia commercial kit miRNA microarray cancer cell endothelial cell promote angiogenesis NA [37]
breast cancer ultracentrifugation& commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer stem cell cancer cell promote proliferation, Invasion and self-renewal ability targeting E-cadherin [67, 85]
lung cancer commercial kit miRNA microarray BMSC cancer cell promote metastasis inducing STAT3 driven EMT [86]
miR-23a liver cancer ultracentrifugation qRT-PCR cancer cell endothelial cell promote angiogenesis targeting SIRT-1 [97]
lung cancer commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer cell endothelial cell promote angiogenesis and increase vascular permeability inhibiting PHD1 and PHD2 expression, thus enhancing HIF-1α signaling and inhibiting tight junction protein ZO-1 [71]
lung cancer ultracentrifugation miRNA microarray cancer cell NK cell impair NK cell cytotoxicity and NK cell function targeting CD107a [35]
lncRNA UCA1 bladder cancer commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer cell cancer cell promote migration and invasion, increase tumor growth and progression inducing EMT [73]
miR-25-3p breast cancer commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer cell cancer cell &macrophage promote proliferation and migration stimulating IL-6 secretion from macrophages via NF-κB pathway [88]
miR10a glioma ultracentrifugation RNA-sequencing cancer cell MDSC promote MDSC expansion and activation regulating RORA/IκBα/NF-κB axis [81]
miR-1273f hepatocellular carcinoma ultracentrifugation qRT-PCR cancer cell cancer cell promote proliferation inhibiting LHX6/Wnt/β-catenin pathway [89]
linc-RoR hepatocellular carcinoma commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer cell cancer cell promote proliferation and increase chemoresistance Inducing phosphorylation of p70S6K1 (RPS6KB1), PDK1 and HIF-1α protein expression and decreasing miR-145 [90, 91]
miR-193a-3p lung cancer commercial kit miRNA microarray BMSC cancer cell promote metastasis inducing STAT3 driven EMT [86]
miR-5100 lung cancer commercial kit miRNA microarray BMSC cancer cell promote metastasis inducing STAT3 driven EMT [86]
miR-494 lung cancer ultracentrifugation qRT-PCR cancer cell endothelial cell promote angiogenesis downregulating PTEN and activating Akt/eNOS pathway [92]
let7a melanoma ultracentrifugation qRT-PCR cancer cell macrophage induce M2 polarization of infiltrating myeloid cells and enhance mitochondrial OXPHOS downregulating insulin-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway [93]
miR-135b multiple myeloma commercial kit miRNA microarray cancer cell endothelial cell promote angiogenesis targeting FIH [94]
miR-24-3p nasopharyngeal carcinoma ultracentrifugation miRNA Microarray cancer cell T-cell inhibit T cell proliferation and differentiation repressing FGF11, up-regulating p-ERK, p-STAT1, p-STA3, down-regulating p-STAT5 [95]
miR-125b-5p ovarian cancer commercial kit miRNA Microarray cancer cell macrophage induce M2 polarization regulating SOCS4/5/STAT3 pathway [84]
miR-181d-5p ovarian cancer commercial kit miRNA Microarray cancer cell macrophage induce M2 polarization regulating SOCS4/5/STAT3 pathway [84]
miR-940 ovarian cancer commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer cell macrophage induce M2 polarization of MDSC NA [36]
miR-223 ovarian cancer commercial kit qRT-PCR macrophage cancer cell promote drug resistance inactivating PI3K/AKT pathway through targeting PTEN [96]
miR-301a-3p pancreatic cancer commercial kit qRT-PCR cancer cell macrophage induce M2 polarization downregulating PTEN expression and activating PI3Kγ signaling pathway [97]