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Table 3 Small-molecule compounds inhibiting CSC progression through suppressing Hh signalling pathway

From: Emerging agents that target signaling pathways in cancer stem cells

Name Target Mechanism Type of cancer Phase NCT number (starting time)/publication date Assessment
Glasdegib Hh Attenuates the potential of leukemia-initiation and increases the sensitivity of LSCs to chemotherapy Leukemia Approved November 21, 2018 Induces common side effect of chemotherapy drugs such as fatigue, nausea, and febrile neutropenia, but also has embryo-fetal toxicity [73]
Sonidegib SMO Downregulates the expression of CSC markers and increases the sensitivity to paclitaxel Breast cancer Phase I NCT02027376 (January 6, 2014) Induces myalgia, fatigue, and abnormal hepatic function, and gastrointestinal toxicity and alopecia are related to the dose of Sonidegib [74, 75]
Vismodegib SMO Inhibits BCSC self-renewal and mammosphere formation Breast cancer Phase II NCT02694224 (February 29, 2016) DLT, hyperbilirubinemia [76]
Suppresses pancreatic CSC proliferation and survival Pancreatic cancer Phase II NCT01064622(February 8, 2010)
Decreases the stem markers (such as CD44 and ALDH) of colon CSCs Colorectal cancer Phase II NCT00636610(March 14, 2008)
Ciclesonide Hh Inhibits the growth of lung CSCs Lung cancer Preclinical February 4, 2020 Well tolerated, but as corticosteroid, it may inhibit bone growth [77]
Cyclopamine SMO Inhibits bladder CSC self-renewal Bladder cancer Preclinical March 1, 2016 Induces holoprosencephaly, dystonia, and lethargy in rodents [78]
GANT61 GLI1 and GLI2 Decreases the CSC population Breast cancer Preclinical May, 2017 No side effects in the mice according to the current studies [79]