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Table 4 Small-molecule compounds inhibiting CSC progression through activating Hippo pathway

From: Emerging agents that target signaling pathways in cancer stem cells

Name Target Mechanism Type of cancer Phase NCT number (starting time)/publication date Assessment
Verteporfin YAP/TAZ Reduces the expression of CSC markers and suppresses CSC proliferation Gastric and esophageal cancer Preclinical August 1, 2014 Without visible toxicity in the mice [99]
gastric cancer Preclinical Apr 15, 2020
Evodiamine LATS1/2 Inhibits the proliferation of colon CSCs Colon cancer Preclinical December 10, 2019 Induces low toxicity and still needs much experiments to prove [100]
Fluvastatin YAP Reduces the expression of CD44 and the characteristics of malignant mesothelioma stem cells Malignant mesothelioma Preclinical January 28, 2017 Without any genotoxic, and relatively safe in patients [101, 102]
Atorvastatin TAZ Decreases MDA-MB 231 cells stemness-related features (such as the decrease of CD44+/CD24- subpopulation of cells) Breast cancer Phase II NCT02416427(April 15, 2015) Muscle loss [103]
CA3 YAP/TEAD Suppresses tumor microsphere, formation and reduces the proportion of ALDH1+ cells Esophageal adenocarcinoma Preclinical February, 2018 Without apparent toxicity in mice according to the current studies [104]
CPZ YAP Inhibits tumor microsphere-formation and stem marker expression Breast cancer Preclinical April 1, 2019 Induces fatal hepatic failure [105]