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Table 5 Small-molecule compounds targeting autophagy to inhibit CSCs

From: Emerging agents that target signaling pathways in cancer stem cells

Name Target Mechanism Type of cancer Phase NCT number (starting time)/publication date Assessment
CQ Autophagy Targets CSCs by inhibiting autophagy Breast cancer Phase II NCT02333890 (January 7, 2015) Induces cardiotoxicity [117]
Autophagy Inhibits the stemness marker of CD133+ and decreases the CSC proportions NSCLC Preclinical December, 2019
HCQ Autophagy Eliminates LSCs Leukemia Phase II NCT00771056 (October 10, 2008) Induces retinal toxicity [118]
Pantoprazole Autophagy Inhibits autophagy Prostate cancer Phase II NCT01748500(December 12, 2012) DLT, grade 3 to 4 [119]
EMT/β-catenin Inhibits the chemoresistance of gastric cancer stem cells Gastric cancer Preclinical December, 2016
3-MA Autophagy Reduces the resistance of mesenchymal stem cells Myeloma Preclinical September, 2017 No significant side effect [120]
Rott Autophagy Induces autophagy leading to breast CSC death Breast cancer Preclinical December 23, 2013 Without toxicity in the mice [121]