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Table 1 The preliminary results of dual and combined CAR-T cell therapy for B cell malignancies

From: Recent advances in CAR-T cell engineering

Researchers Condition Target Design Co-stimulation domain Enrolled pts Primary outcome Long-term follow-up
Hossain et al. [21] B cell malignancies CD 19 and CD 22 One CAR with two binding sites 4-1BB 5 DLBCL pts, 2 ALL pts 2/6 pts achieved CR; 3/6 pts achieved PR; 1/6 pts had PD Two pts remained CR at two and 3 months, 2 pts remained PR and the other one died of PD.
Shah et al. [22] B-NHL CD 19 and CD 20 One CAR with two binding sites 4-1BB 3 MCL pts, 2 DLBCL pts, and 1 CLL pts 2/6 pts achieved C R; 2/6 pts achived PR, and 2/6 pts had PD 2 pts remained in CR at 3 and 9 months
Amrolia et al. [23] B-ALL CD 19 and CD 22 One vector encoding two CARs 4-1BB for CD 19, OX4O for CD 22 9 CAR pediatric pts All 9 pts achieved MRD-CR 3 pts relapsed within 1 year after treatment.
Ardeshna et al. [24] D LBCL 11 adult pts The lowest dose: 2/7 pts achieved CR, 2/7 pts achived PR
The higher dose: 2/4 pts achieved CR
NA
Schult et al. [25] B-ALL CD 19 and CD 22 One CAR with two binding sites 4-1BB 10 pediatric pts and 9 adult pts 11/12 pts achieved CR, 1/12 pts had PD The OSs was 92% with a median follow-up of 9.5 months
Dai et al. [26] B-ALL CD 19 and CD 22 One CAR with two binding sites 4-1BB 6 adult pts All 6 pts achieved CR 3 relapse at 3 monthd, 5 months, and 10 months after treatment
Yang et al. [27] B-ALL CD 19 and CD 22 Two vectors encoding two CAR 4-1bb and extra PD-L1 for CD 22 5 children and 10 adults All 15 pts achieved CR, 14 of them achieved MRD 11 pts bridged allo-HSCT remained in remission state with a median follow-up of 133 days. 2 pts without allo-HSCT relapsed on day 240 and day 105 after treatment
Yang et al. [28] B-ALL CD 19 and CD 22 One CAR with two binding sites 4-1BB 4 adults and 13 pediatrics pts The low dose: 3/4 pts had non-response and 1/4 achieved MRD + CR.The medium dose: all 7 pts achieved CR, 6/7 pts had MRD-CR No one relapsed with a median follow-up time of 60 days
Gardner et al. [29] B-ALL CD 19 and CD 22 Two vectors encoding two CARS 4-1BB 7 young adult or pediatric pts 5/7 pts achieved CR, 4/7 of them achieved MRD– NA
Wang et al. [30] B-ALL CD 19 and CD 22 Manufacture and infuse separately CD 28 and 4-1BB for both CAR 51 adult pts 48/50 pts achieved MRD-CR, 2/50 pts achieved PR The median PFS was 13.6 months,The median O S was 31.0 months
  B-NHL 38 adult pts 18/36 pts achieved CR, 8/36 pts achieved PR The median PFS was 9.9 months ,The median O S was 18.0 months