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Table 1 Main features of preclinical cancer models

From: Modeling neoplastic disease with spheroids and organoids

Features Cell culture Spheroids Organoids PDXs
Cost Low Low Medium High
Time Low* Low* Medium* High*
Easy handling +++ ++ + -
Success rate High High Medium Low
Throughput potential High High Medium Low
Tumor heterogeneity No retention Partial retention Retention Retention
Genetic manipulation +++ +++ +++ -
Human immune components - + + -
Tumor–stroma interaction - ++ ++ +++
  1. Features are scored as follows: *Low (< 1 month), *Medium (1–3 months), *High (several months). (+++) optimal, (++) good, (+) sufficient, (-) not suitable