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Table 2 Myeloma disease characteristics of patients

From: A tertiary center experience of multiple myeloma patients with COVID-19: lessons learned and the path forward

  All patients Patients not admitted to hospital Hospitalized, discharged alive Hospitalized, deceased
n = 58 n = 22 n = 22 n = 14
Disease characteristics
 SMM 7% (4) 9% (2) 5% (1) 7% (1)
 SMM/MM subtype
  IgD 2% (1) 5% (1) 0% (0) 0% (0)
  IgG 59% (34) 59% (13) 64% (14) 50% (7)
  IgA 19% (11) 23% (5) 14% (3) 21% (3)
  Light chain disease 33% (19) 23% (5) 41% (9) 36% (5)
 Extramedullary disease history 31% (18) 36% (8) 32% (7) 21% (3)
 ISS at diagnosis
  1 33% (18/54) 45% (9/20) 43% (9/21) 0% (0/13)
  2 26% (14/54) 25% (5/20) 33% (7/21) 15% (2/13)
  3 19% (10/54) 20% (4/20) 14% (3/21) 23% (3/13)
  Not known 22% (12/54) 10% (2/20) 10% (2/21) 62% (8/13)
 High-risk cytogenetics 39% (22/56) 33% (7/21) 41% (9) 46% (6/13)
 Time since MM diagnosis (months) 29.8 [44.2] 44.8 [38.7] 27.2 [55.8] 28.6 [23.6]
 History of ASCT 41% (22/54) 60% (12/20) 24% (5/21) 38% (5/13)
  Time since ASCT (days) 985 [1590] 985 [744] 2148 [2206] 460 [1734]
  ASCT within last year 9% (5/54) 15% (3/20) 0% (0/21) 15% (2/13)
 Lines of therapy (n) 1.5 [2] 2 [2] 2 [3] 1 [1]
  More than 4 lines of treatment 17% (9/54) 20% (4/20) 19% (4/21) 8% (1/13)
 ECOG 0 47% (27) 64% (14) 41% (9) 29% (4)
 Current response status*
  sCR or CR 26% (15) 45% (10) 14% (3) 14% (2)
  VGPR 19% (11) 18% (4) 14% (3) 29% (4)
  PR 22% (13) 18% (4) 23% (5) 29% (4)
  SD 3% (2) 5% (1) 5% (1) 0% (0)
  PD 16% (9) 5% (1) 23% (5) 21% (3)
  Not evaluable 14% (8) 9% (2) 23% (5) 7% (1)
Current MM treatment regimen
 Contains CD38 mAb 48% (28) 50% (11) 50% (11) 43% (6)
 Contains IMiD 55% (32) 55% (12) 59% (13) 50% (7)
 Contains proteasome inhibitor 38% (22) 27% (6) 41% (9) 50% (7)
 Contains corticosteroids 52% (30) 45% (10) 50% (11) 64% (9)
 Contains venetoclax 9% (5) 14% (3) 9% (2) 0% (0)
 No active treatment 19% (11) 18% (4) 18% (4) 21% (3)
Biochemical parameters at last clinic visit before COVID-19 episode
 Leukocyte count (× 10e9/L) 4.6 [2.1] 4.1 [2.1] 5.2 [2.4] 4.7 [1.5]
 Leukocytopenia (< 4 × 10e9/L) 35% (20/57) 41% (9) 33% (7/21) 29% (4)
 Absolute neutrophil count (× 10e9/L) 2.6 [2.2] 2.4 [1] 3.4 [3] 2.4 [1.4]
 Neutropenia (< 2 × 10e9/L) 26% (15/57) 32% (7) 29% (6/21) 14% (2)
 Absolute lymphocyte count (× 10e9/L) 1 [0.8] 1.1 [1.2] 0.8 [0.9] 1.2 [0.5]
 Lymphocytopenia (< 0.5 × 10e9/L) 12% (7/57) 0% (0) 33% (7/21) 0% (0)
 Serum free light chain ratio (involved/uninvolved) 2.5 [11.9] 1.6 [3.3] 7.7 [45.5] 1.8 [5.2]
 M spike (g/dL) 0 [0.6] 0 [0.2] 0.3 [1.2] 0.1 [0.4]
 IgG (mg/dL) 805 [736] 1074.5 [683.8] 764 [1121] 727 [496.8]
 Hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG < 700 mg/dL) 37% (21/57) 32% (7) 38% (8/21) 43% (6)
 Severe hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG < 400 mg/dL) 11% (6/57) 0% (0) 10% (2/21) 29% (4)
 Immunoparesis 89% (51/57) 82% (18) 95% (20/21) 93% (13)
  1. Note: values are presented as percentage (n) or median [interquartile range]
  2. Abbreviations: SMM smoldering multiple myeloma, Ig immunoglobulin, ISS international staging system, MM multiple myeloma, ASCT autologous stem cell transplant, ECOG Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, sCR stringent complete response, CR complete response, VGPR very good partial response, SD stable disease, PD progressive disease, mAb monoclonal antibody, IMiD immunomodulatory agent
  3. *According to IMWG criteria