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Table 4 Univariate associations of selected variables with risk of hospitalization and mortality

From: A tertiary center experience of multiple myeloma patients with COVID-19: lessons learned and the path forward

  Hospitalized vs non-hospitalized n = 58 Mortality (dead vs alive) n = 58
OR [95% CI] or median NH/H p value OR [95% CI] or median dead/alive p value
Demographics
 Age (> 70 years) 7.74 [1.51–78.12] 0.007 1.32 [0.29–5.47] 0.744
 Sex (male) 3.7 [1.08–13.81] 0.030 1.33 [0.34–5.48] 0.762
 Race (non-White) 1.87 [0.55–6.51] 0.275 10.49 [1.35–481.76] 0.011
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) 1.98 [0.56–7.72] 0.272 2.04 [0.5–8.4] 0.340
Comorbidities
 High cardiovascular risk profile (≥ 2 of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes) 3.42 [1.01–12.4] 0.032 2.46 [0.59–12.43] 0.221
  Hypertension 1.38 [0.4–4.73] 0.585 2.5 [0.55–15.93] 0.220
  Hyperlipidemia 2.24 [0.66–7.81] 0.170 4.88 [0.92–49.98] 0.057
  Diabetes 6.18 [1.19–62.84] 0.016 1.07 [0.2–4.67] 1.000
 Coronary artery disease Inf [1.64–Inf] 0.009 2.49 [0.43–13.07] 0.233
 Stroke ∞ [0.58–∞] 0.145 2.24 [0.17–22.05] 0.585
 Congestive heart failure ∞ [0.96–∞] 0.037 5.26 [0.76–41.93] 0.051
 Current or former smoker 1.98 [0.56–7.72] 0.272 2.04 [0.5–8.4] 0.340
 Lung disease (COPD, emphysema, asthma, bronchiectasis) 1.28 [0.29–6.69] 1.000 0.57 [0.05–3.3] 0.711
 Chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 60 mL/min) 1.13 [0.28–5.06] 1.000 0.82 [0.12–3.97] 1.000
 History of other malignancy 2.59 [0.23–135.24] 0.640 5.51 [0.56–73.43] 0.085
Number of comorbidities 1/3 0.011 2/3.5 0.055
Concomitant medications
 Anticoagulation 3.77 [0.69–39.19] 0.108 1.78 [0.32–8.51] 0.457
 ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker 1.73 [0.52–6.06] 0.416 2.81 [0.7–12.6] 0.126
 Beta blocker 9.63 [1.89–97.14] 0.002 2.35 [0.58–9.72] 0.203
 Metformin 5.85 [0.69–278.29] 0.133 0.35 [0.01–3.08] 0.431
 Statin 12.06 [2.78–76.13] < 0.001 6.21 [1.37–39.77] 0.012
 Aspirin 0.97 [0.28–3.23] 1.000 0.92 [0.23–3.83] 1.000
 NSAID 1.23 [0.06–76.27] 1.000 1.6 [0.03–33.14] 1.000
 Oral corticosteroids 1.66 [0.51–5.61] 0.420 2.69 [0.65–13.59] 0.139
Disease characteristics
 Light chain disease 2.09 [0.44–13.55] 0.342 1.19 [0.26–4.88] 1.000
 High risk cytogenetics 1.49 [0.43–5.52] 0.577 1.44 [0.33–6.03] 0.747
 Current response status
  sCR or CR 0.2 [0.04–0.8] 0.013 0.4 [0.04–2.23] 0.317
Current MM treatment regimen
 Contains CD38 mAb 0.9 [0.27–2.95] 1.000 0.75 [0.18–2.96] 0.762
 Contains IMiD 1.04 [0.31–3.43] 1.000 0.76 [0.19–3.04] 0.761
 Contains proteasome inhibitor 2.11 [0.6–8.17] 0.267 1.91 [0.47–7.78] 0.350
 Contains corticosteroids 1.49 [0.45–4.99] 0.589 1.95 [0.49–8.67] 0.363
 Contains venetoclax 0.38 [0.03–3.62] 0.357 0 [0–3.45] 0.322
 No active treatment 1.08 [0.23–5.79] 1.000 1.22 [0.18–6.34] 1.000
Biochemical parameters at last clinic visit before COVID-19 episode
 Leukocytopenia (< 4 × 10e9/L) 0.67 [0.19–2.34] 0.571 0.68 [0.13–2.88] 0.749
 Lymphocytopenia (< 0.5 × 10e9/L) ∞ [0.99–∞] 0.036 0 [0–2.07] 0.176
 Neutropenia (< 2 × 10e9/L) 0.64 [0.16–2.52] 0.542 0.39 [0.04–2.16] 0.312
 IgG level (mg/dL) 1074.5/738 0.297 869/718 0.074
 Hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG < 700 mg/dL) 1.42 [0.41–5.24] 0.584 1.39 [0.33–5.61] 0.751
 Severe hypogammaglobulinemia (IgG < 400 mg/dL) ∞ [0.79–∞] 0.072 7.80 [0.97–97.75] 0.027
 Immunoparesis 3.58 [0.46–43.2] 0.192 1.70 [0.17–87.01] 1.000
Peak biochemical parameters during hospitalization Note: variables below only apply to the subset of patients hospitalized at Mount Sinai Hospital n = 23
 CRP (mg/L) 144.8/289.4 0.019
 Total leukocyte count (× 10e9/L) (lowest) 2.9/4.2 0.444
 Absolute lymphocyte count (× 10e9/L) (lowest) 0.4/0.2 0.319
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.1/2.5 0.052
 Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 0.5/2.3 0.010
 Ferritin (μg/L) 1282/3474 0.007
 Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 646/667 0.888
 D-dimer (mg/L) 2/18.2 0.004
 LDH (U/L) 478/830 0.065
 ALT (U/L) 43.5/76.5 0.244
 AST (U/L) 49.5/100 0.054
 IL-1b (pg/mL) 0.5/0.5 1.000
 IL-6 (pg/mL) 119.2/296.8 0.117
 IL-8 (pg/mL) 46.6/137 0.104
 TNF-alfa (pg/mL) 29.4/21.3 0.574
  1. Note: values are presented as OR [95% confidence interval] or median of group 1/median of group 2; p values according to Wilcoxon test for continuous variables and Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables
  2. Abbreviations: OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, NH not hospitalized, H hospitalized, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ASCT autologous stem cell transplant, Ig immunoglobulin, CRP C-reactive protein, ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate aminotransferase, IL interleukin, TNF tumor necrosis factor