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Table 2 Functional tRFs in different types of cancer

From: tRNA-derived RNA fragments in cancer: current status and future perspectives

Cancer type tRF name Role Function Ref
Breast cancer tRFGlu, tRFAsp, tRFGly, tRFTyr Tumor suppressor Destabilization of pro-oncogenic transcripts via YBX1 displacement. [32]
tDR-0009, tDR-7336 Upregulate under hypoxia conditions Facilitate the doxorubicin resistance in TNBC cells. [63]
tRF3E Tumor suppressor Promote p53 translation through competitive interactions with nucleolin. [64]
5′-tiRNAVal Tumor suppressor Inhibit the FZD3-mediated Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway in BC cells. [65]
5′-SHOT-RNA Oncogene Enhance cell proliferation in BC cells. [66]
ts-112 Oncogene Promote cell growth in normal-like mammary epithelial cells. [67]
  tRF-30-JZOYJE22RR33, tRF-27-ZDXPHO53KSN Upregulate in trastuzumab-resistant patients Correlate with trastuzumab resistance in HER-2-positive BC. [42]
Prostate cancer tRF-1001 Oncogene Promote the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. [68]
5′-SHOT-RNA Oncogene Promote the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. [66]
Leukemia ts-101, ts-53, ts-46, ts-47 Downregulate in CLL samples Interact with Ago proteins and Piwil2. [35]
ts-43, ts-44 Downregulate in CLL samples Likely act as a tumor suppressor. [69]
tRF-3019 Detected in HTLV-1 infection cells Match the sequence of the primer binding site of HTLV-1 and activate HTLV-1 reverse transcriptase. [70]
CU1276 Upregulate in normal germinal center B cells Inhibit endogenous RPA1 to inhibit cell proliferation and regulate the molecular response to DNA damage. [71]
Lung cancer ts-101, ts-53, ts-46, ts-47 Tumor suppressor Inhibit the colony formation of lung cancer cells. [35]
tRF-Leu-CAG Oncogene Repress AURKA to promote cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. [72]
Colorectal cancer tRF-1001 Oncogene Promote the proliferation of HCT-116 cells. [68]
tRF/miR-1280 Tumor suppressor Interact with the 3′-UTR of Notch ligand JAG2 to repress Notch/Gata and miR-200b signaling and inhibit CRC growth and metastasis. [73]
5′-tiRNA-Val Highly expressed in CRC patients Regulate ANG-mediated CRC metastasis. [74]
Hepatocellular carcinomas tRF_U3_1 Upregulate in the HCC cell line and tissues Inhibit viral gene expression and its precursors. [46]
Ovarian cancer tRF-03357 Oncogene Promote the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of high-grade serous ovarian cancer partly by downregulating HMBOX1. [75]
Urinary bladder carcinomas One tRF Isolated from conditioned medium of human urinary bladder carcinoma cells Inhibit the growth of endothelial cells. [76]