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Table 1 The main characteristics of immunosenescence cells

From: Immunosenescence: a key player in cancer development

Category Markers Cell types   References
Surface marker CD27, CD28 T cells [41, 42]
  CD57, KLRG-1, Tim-3, TIGIT, CD45RA T cells [41, 42]
  NKp30, NKp46, DNAM-1, NKG2A NK cells [28, 45, 46]
  KIR, NKG2C, CD57 NK cells [28, 45, 46]
  CD62L, TLR1/4 Monocytes/macrophages [28]
  CD11b, TLR5 Monocytes/macrophages [28]
  CD11a, CD11b Neutrophils [28]
Cell cycle arrest P16, P21, P53 T cells [5, 42, 43]
Molecules associated with DNA damage γH2AX All [64, 65]
TCR signaling machinery Lck, ZAP70, DLG1, Lat, SLP-76 T cells [39, 64]
Proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, TNF T cells [31,32,33,34]
Cytokines IL-7 T cells [30]
Inhibitory factors IL-10, TGF-β T cells [39]
Epigenetic change SAHF T cells [37]
Metabolic alteration Glycolysis T cells [35, 36]
  Mitochondrial biogenesis T cells [35, 36]
  ROS T cells [35, 36]
Effector molecules Perforin, GzmB T cells [39]
Telomere length Telomere All [21, 44]
Telomerase activity Telomerase All [21, 44]
SA-b-gal activity SA-β-gal All [34]