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Fig. 2 | Journal of Hematology & Oncology

Fig. 2

From: Isolation and characterization of exosomes for cancer research

Fig. 2

Clinical applications of exosomes in cancer. Exosomes can be extracted from bodily fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, milk, lymph, bile, blood, and urine (among others). Analysis of the molecular contents of exosomes, including proteins, nucleic acids, metabolites, and lipids, could provide unique opportunities in the context of liquid biopsies for gaining information about the presence, molecular profile, and behavior of cancer. Exosomes can be used as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis, prediction, and surveillance. Clinical treatment mainly involves three strategies: First, cargo, including drugs, DNAs, RNAs, and proteins, can be encapsulated in exosomes and targeted to cancer sites. Second, immunotherapy can be used in cancer therapy. DC-derived exosomes inhibit tumor progression. CAR-containing exosomes, unlike CAR-T cells, suppress tumor progression via receptor binding. The interaction between SIRP╬▒ on macrophages and CD47 on tumor cells can be blocked by engineered exosomes. Therapeutics inhibit the release of PD-L1-bearing exosomes. Finally, inhibition of exosome biogenesis, secretion and uptake are relevant to cancer therapy. Exosome secretion and biogenesis can be prevented via a p300/CBP inhibitor or genetic knockout of Rab27a and nSMase2. The uptake process can be prevented by inhibitors such as heparin, cytochalasin D, methyl-╬▓-cyclodextrin, and dynasore

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