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Table 1 Impact of treating non-responders and the incurred response dichotomy on the required sample size (N) and empirical power (EP). Response dicotomy is measured by the proportion of responders (p%) among the treatment arm at baseline. Target power is 80%. Lag duration is 1 month. Hazard ratio for responding patients is 0.3. Total study duration is 5 years. Enrollment rate is 0.53 subjects/day

From: Treating non-responders: pitfalls and implications for cancer immunotherapy trial design

 P-embedded designConventional design
p (%)NEmpirical powerNEmpirical power
2026980%278.81%
3013713.39%
408918.58%
506825.73%
605232.81%