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Table 3 Selected tumor markers used for TCR-based therapy, function, and tumor types associated with their overexpression

From: T-cell receptor-based therapy: an innovative therapeutic approach for solid tumors

Marker Abbreviation Function Tumors associated with overexpression
AFP Alpha Fetoprotein Fetal development [109]—binds metals, fatty acids, and bilirubin Hepatocellular carcinoma [110], testicular cancer [111]
H3.3K27M Histone H3 trimethylation Histone protein associated with aberrant chromatin compaction and silencing of tumor suppressor genes [112] Prostate cancer [113], diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma [114]
HPV-16 E6 Human Papilloma Virus-16 E6 Oncoprotein that disrupts p53 function Head/neck [115], cervix [116], anal canal [117]
HPV-16 E7 Human Papilloma Virus-16 E7 Oncoprotein that disrupts pRB function Head/neck [115], cervix [116], anal canal [117]
MAGE-A1 Melanoma-associated antigen 1 Embryonic development, transcriptional regulation [118] Non-small cell lung carcinoma [119]
MAGE-A3 Melanoma-associated antigen 3 Enhancement of E3 ubiquitin ligase activity [120] Non-small cell lung carcinoma, melanoma [121], urothelial [122]
MAGE-A4 Melanoma-associated antigen 4 Embryonic development [123] Non-small cell lung carcinoma [124], urothelial [125]
MAGE-A6 Melanoma-associated antigen 6 Enhancement of E3 ubiquitin ligase activity [126] Breast [127], gastric [128]
MAGE-A8 Melanoma-associated antigen 8 Embryonic development [129] Melanoma [130], urothelial [131]
MAGE-A10 Melanoma-associated antigen 10 Embryonic development [129] Non-small cell lung carcinoma, melanoma, urothelial [132]
MCPyVs Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV oncoprotein) Oncovirus integrates into infected cells Merkel cell carcinoma [133]
Mesothelin Cellular adhesion [134] Mesothelioma [135], ovarian [136], pancreatic [137]
NY-ESO-1 Cancer/testis antigen 1 Embryonal development [138] Melanoma [139], breast [140], ovarian [141], non-small cell lung carcinoma [142]
PRAME Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma Transcriptional repressor Melanoma [143], head/neck [144], osteosarcoma [145]
WT-1 Wilms tumor 1 Urogenital development [146] Kidney [147], breast [148], leukemia [149]