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Table 1 Overview of EV isolation methods

From: Therapeutic roles of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in cancer

Isolation method Principle Advantages Disadvantages References
Differential ultracentrifugation Based on differential centrifugation Most commonly used and well established
Simple
Economical
Relatively high yield
Low purity
Low upscale potential
[31, 34]
Density gradient ultracentrifugation Based on density gradient of solutions Relatively high purity
Maintain EV integrity
Time-consuming
Lower yield
Low upscale potential
[31, 34]
Size exclusion chromatography Based on particle size Economical
Relatively high purity
Maintain EV integrity
High upscale potential
Time-consuming
Lower yield
Contamination
[32]
Tangential flow filtration Based on particle size High yield
High purity
High time-efficiency
High upscale potential
Complicated equipment
Difficult operation
Limited understanding
[33, 35]
Affinity capture Based on interaction of capture molecule with EV antigen High purity
Specific separation
Low yield
Costly
Separate targeted proteins only
[31, 34]