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Table 3 Advantages and disadvantages of post-loading methods

From: Therapeutic roles of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in cancer

Post-loading method Category Advantages Disadvantages References
Direct co-incubation Passive loading Simple
Maintain EV membrane integrity
Low loading efficiency
Time-consuming
Limited cargo range
[69, 71]
Electroporation Physically-induced active loading High loading efficiency SiRNA aggregation
Potential influence of stability
[70]
Sonication Physically-induced active loading High loading efficiency Disrupt EV membrane integrity
Damage cargoes
[68, 72]
Freeze and thaw cycles Physically-induced active loading Medium loading efficiency EV aggregation [73]
Extrusion Physically-induced active loading High loading efficiency Disrupt EV membrane integrity [68]
Saponin/chemical transfection Chemically-induced active loading High loading efficiency Immunogenetic toxicity
Potential influence of stability
[66]