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Table 1 Landscape of non-coding RNAs transmitted by small extracellular vesicles in pancreatic cancer, induced molecular pathways and effect on recipient cells

From: Small extracellular vesicle non-coding RNAs in pancreatic cancer: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications

ncRNA Transmission by small extracellular vesicles Target Downstream signaling/molecular mechanism Effect in recipient cells Ref
from… to…
microRNAs
21-5p TAM PDAC KLF3   Stemness, invasion, migration [83]
  PSCs PDAC   Induction of Ras/ERK/Akt Proliferation, migration [106]
27a PDAC Endothelial cells BTG2   Angiogenesis, tumor growth [114]
106b PSCs PDAC TP53INP1   GEM resistance [99]
125b-5p Highly malignant PDAC Less malignant PDAC STARD13 Induction of MEK2/ERK2 Invasion, migration, EMT [48]
143 hMSCs PDAC lncRNA-RP11-363N22.3   Promotes apoptosis, inhibits proliferation, invasion, migration [102]
145 Primary tumor stroma PDAC    Apoptosis [101]
146a GEM-treated CAFs PDAC   Induction of Snail GEM resistance [100]
155 Pancreatic fibroblasts CAFs TP53INP1   Conversion of PSCs into CAFs [98]
  TAM Endothelial cells E2F2   Angiogenesis, tumor growth [113]
  GEM-resistant PDAC PDAC TP53INP1   GEM resistance [127]
  GEM-treated PDAC PDAC DCK   GEM resistance [126]
203 PDAC Dendritic cells TLR4 Inhibition of TNF-α/IL-12 expression Immunosuppression [72]
210 GEM-treated CSCs regular PDAC   Induction of mTOR Stemness, GEM resistance [131]
212-3p PDAC Dendritic cells RFXAP Inhibition of MHC II expression Immunosuppression [72]
221-5p TAM Endothelial cells E2F2   Angiogenesis, tumor growth [113]
222 Highly malignant PDAC Less malignant PDAC PPP2R2A Induction of AKT, inhibition of p27 import to the nucleus Proliferation, invasion, migration [49]
301a-3p Hypoxic PDAC Macrophages PTEN Induction of PI3K/AKT/mTOR M1-to-M2 polarization of macrophages, immunosuppression [84]
365 TAM PDAC BTG2 Induction of FAK/AKT Proliferation, invasion, migration [78]
     Increase of intracellular NTPs and CDA GEM resistance [77]
494 PDAC LN stroma cells, lung fibroblasts CDH17   Promotes pre-metastatic niche [58]
   PBMCs   Increase of intracellular calcium fluxes Expansion of MDSCs and immunosuppression [74]
501-3p TAM PDAC   Induction of TGFBR3 Anti-apoptosis, proliferation, stemness, invasion, migration [82]
   Endothelial cells    Angiogenesis  
542-3p PDAC LN stroma cells, lung fibroblasts CDH17   Promotes pre-metastatic niche [58]
616-3p hypoxic PSCs PDAC PTEN Induction of AKT Proliferation, invasion, migration [107]
1260a PDAC PBMC   Increase of intracellular calcium fluxes Expansion of MDSCs and immunosuppression [74]
1290 PDAC PSCs   Induction of ERK/Akt Conversion of PSCs into profibrotic CAFs [97]
3607-3p natural killer cells PDAC IL-26   Inhibits proliferation, invasion, migration [76]
4465 hypoxic PSCs PDAC PTEN Induction of AKT Proliferation, invasion, migration [107]
5703 PSCs PDAC CMTM4 Induction of PAK4/PI3K/Akt Proliferation [108]
Long non-coding RNAs
CCAT1 PDAC Endothelial cells miR-138-5p Induction of HMGA1 Angiogenesis, tumor growth [115]
HULC PDAC PDAC    EMT, invasion, migration [56]
SBF2-AS1 TAM PDAC miR-122-5p Induction of XIAP Proliferation, invasion, migration [79]
Sox2ot Highly malignant PDAC Less malignant PDAC miR-200 family Induction of Sox2 Stemness, EMT, metastasis [53]
UCA1 Hypoxic PDAC Endothelial cells miR-96-5p Induction of AMOTL2/ERK1/2 Angiogenesis, tumor growth [116]
Circular RNAs
0000069 PDAC Benign pancreas   Induction of STIL Cell cycle progression, proliferation, migration [59]
0030167 BM-MSCs PDAC miR-338-5p Induction of Wif1, inhibition of Wnt8/β-catenin Inhibits proliferation, invasion, migration, stemness [103]
IARS PDAC Endothelial cells miR-122   Endothelial permeability, metastasis [57]
PDE8A Highly malignant PDAC Less malignant PDAC miR-338 Induction of MACC1/MET/ERK/AKT Proliferation, invasion, metastasis [47]
ZNF91 Hypoxic PDAC Normoxic PDAC miR-23b-3p Induction of SIRT1 and glycolysis GEM resistance [133]
  1. BM-MSC, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell; CAF, cancer-associated fibroblast; CDA, cytidine deaminase; CSC, cancer stem cell; DCK, deoxycytidine kinase; EMT, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; GEM, gemcitabine; hMSC, human mesenchymal stem cell; LN, lymph node; NTP, nucleotide triphosphate; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; PSC, pancreatic stellate cell; Ref., reference; TAM, M2-polarized tumor-associated macrophage