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Table 4 Preclinical trials of sEV-encapsulated ncRNAs as therapeutics in PDAC

From: Small extracellular vesicle non-coding RNAs in pancreatic cancer: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications

Ref sEV donor Cargo loading ncRNA Mouse model Therapeutic intervention Result
Kamerkar et al. [193] Human foreskin fibroblast Electroporation siKRASG12D orthotopic PANC-1/BxPC-3/KPC689 xenografts Intraperitoneal injection of sEVs Prolonged survival, inhibition of metastasis
KPC/KTC GEMM
Mendt et al. [206] BM-MSC Electroporation siKRASG12D Orthotopic KPC689/PANC-1 xenograft Intraperitoneal injection of sEVs Prolonged survival, enhanced effect of gemcitabine
Orthotopic PATX-60 PDX
PKS GEMM
Ding et al. [201] HUC-MSC Transfection miR-145-5p
mimic
Subcutaneous PANC-1
xenograft
Intratumoral injection of sEVs Reduced tumor growth
Wu et al. [202] BM-MSC Transfection miR-126-3p mimic Subcutaneous xenograft Co-injection of BM-MSCs Reduced tumor growth
Shang et al. [204] BM-MSC Transfection miR-1231
mimic
Subcutaneous BxPC-3 xenograft Tail vein injection of sEVs Reduced tumor growth
Zuo et al. [207] HEK293 Ultrasound miR-34a mimic Subcutaneous Panc28 xenograft Intravenous injection of sEVs Reduced tumor growth
Xu et al. [208] PANC-1 Electroporation siPAK4 Subcutaneous PANC-1 xenograft Intratumoral injection of sEVs Reduced tumor growth
Zhou et al. [209] BM-MSC Electroporation siGalectin9 Orthotopic PANC-02 xenograft Tail vein injection of sEVs Enhanced effect of immunotherapy
  1. 5-FU, fluorouracil; BM, bone marrow; GEMM, genetically engineered mouse model; HUC, human umbilical cord; MSC, mesenchymal stem cell; PDX, patient-derived xenograft; Ref., reference