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Table 1 Regulation of FGL1 expression in association with substance metabolism

From: Fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1): the next immune checkpoint target

Stimulating factor Induced cell type Signaling pathway Phenotype References
FGL1 3T3-L1 (adipocyte) ERK1/2-C/EBPβ-PPARγ FGL1-induced adipogenesis [56]
  HepG2 ERK1/2 Impair insulin sensitivity [52]
Hyperglycemia HepG2 ERK1/2-NRF2-SOD1 Enhance antioxidative stress [69]
   STAT3/HNF-1 Upregulate FGL1 expression  
Hyperlipidemia (Palmitate) Primary hepatocyte C/EBPβ Upregulate FGL1 expression [68]
FGL1 C2C12 (myoblast) JNK-p-JNK Impair insulin sensitivity  
Hepatectomy/IL-6 Hepatocyte HNF-1/STAT3/AP-1 Activate the FGL1 and IGFBP-1 genes; restore metabolic homeostasis [74, 78]
  1. AP-1: activating protein-1; C/EBPβ: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β; ERK1/2: extracellular regulated protein kinases 1/2; HNF-1: hepatocyte nuclear factor-1; IGFBP-1: insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1; JNK: Jun N-terminal kinase; NRF2: nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2; PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; SOD1: superoxide dismutase 1; STAT3: signal transducer and activator of transcription 3