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Table 2 Summary of the FGL1 detection in various human cancers as determined by a clinical approach

From: Fibrinogen-like protein 1 (FGL1): the next immune checkpoint target

No Year Tumor type Numbers/samples FGL1 detection methods Conclusions References
1 2020 BC N = 47, primary tumor tissue; N = 82, peripheral blood IHC; flow cytometry FGL1 was present and tended to be expressed at higher levels in stage III cancer cells than in stage I or II cancer cells [163]
2 2020 HCC N = 143, primary tumor tissue Multiplex IF High FGL1 expression was negatively associated with PD-L1 expression and the CD8+ T cell density but positively associated with high LAG3+ T cell density [165]
3 2019 LUAD N = 30, primary tumor tissue IHC Low FGL1 expression contributed to EMT and angiogenesis in LKB1-low LUAD tissue samples [93]
4 2019 NSCLC N = 275, plasma Multiplex QIF FGL1 was shown to exhibit a relatively high expression level in tumor cells compared with the stromal distribution and paired normal tissues; ~ 15% NSCLC patients showed elevated expression, implying a worse 5-year OS rate [50]
    N = 74, plasma ELISA Higher plasma FGL1 levels were detected in NSCLC patients than in healthy donors; the plasma FGL1 levels in NSCLC patients were not associated with tumor metastasis or liver injury  
    N = 18, plasma ELISA Higher plasma FGL1 levels were associated with worse OS in NSCLC patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy  
5 2019 MM N = 21, plasma ELISA Higher plasma FGL1 levels were associated with worse OS in metastatic melanoma patients treated with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy  
6 2019 GC N = 50, primary tumor tissue qPCR and WB Both the mRNA and protein levels of FGL1 were obviously higher in GC tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.001); high FGL1 expression was related to a poor prognosis (P < 0.01); the FGL1 expression, pathological stage and histological grade were positively associated with the OS of GC patients (P < 0.05) [94]
  1. BC: breast cancer; ELISA: sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; GC: gastric cancer; IF: immunofluorescence staining; IHC: immunohistochemical staining; QIF: quantitative immunofluorescence staining; LUAD: lung adenocarcinoma; MM: melanoma; OS: overall survival; qPCR: quantitative PCR; WB: western blot