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Table 10 Major vehicles to deliver cancer vaccines

From: Combination strategies to maximize the benefits of cancer immunotherapy

Technology Examples Important considerations
Peptides Short peptide (<‚ÄČ15 aa) Directly binding to MHC, Not processed by APC, more tolerogenic,
Synthetic long peptide, neoantigens Preferably taken up and processed by dendritic cells, usually co-administrated with adjuvant to potentiate immunogenicity
Cellular vaccine Tumor cells Autologous or allogeneic, not need to identify tumor antigens,
Dendritic cells Provide tumor antigens and costimulatory signals, can co-express cytokines and other co-stimulatory molecules, highly immunogenic
Microorganisms Microorganisms are immunostimulatory, can co-express other stimulatory molecules
Viral vector PROSTVAC-VF/Tricom Vehicles are highly immunogenic, can co-express stimulatory cytokines and other molecules; may need local injection; neutralizing antibody can clear virus
DNA/RNA RNA mutanome vaccines Vaccine (DNA/RNA) itself is immunogenic. Low delivery efficiency with the native form. Other delivery methods (nanoparticles, gene gun and in situ electroporation) enhance delivery