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Table 1 The functions of m6A enzymes in RNA metabolism

From: Functions, mechanisms, and therapeutic implications of METTL14 in human cancer

Type Factors Function
Writers METTL3 Catalyzes m6A modification [52]
  METTL14 Stabilizes the structure of MTC and recognizes target RNAs [68]
  WTAP Contributes to the localization of METTL3-METTL14 heterodimer to the nuclear speckle [49, 70]
  VIRMA Recruits the MTC to the special RNA site and interacts with polyadenylation cleavage factors CPSF5 and CPSF6 [51]
  BM15/15B Recruits METTL3-METTL14 heterodimer to target transcripts [53]
  ZC3H13 Bridges WTAP to the mRNA-binding factor Nito [55]
  ZCCHC4 Responsible for m6A modification of 28S rRNA [60,61,62]
  METTL16 Catalyzes m6A modification in U6-snRNA and participates in pre-RNA splicing [56, 57]
  METTL5 Responsible for m6A modification of 18S rRNA [58, 59]
Erasers FTO Removes m6A modification [29,30,31]
  ALKBH5 Removes m6A modification [31, 58, 110]
  ALKBH3 Removes m6A modification [33, 34]
Readers YTHDC1 Impacts mRNA splicing and nuclear export [37]
  YTHDC2 Promotes RNA decay and translation [38]
  YTHDF1 Enhances the translational rates of its mRNA targets [35]
  YTHDF2 Induces mRNA degradation [36]
  YTHDF3 Promotes mRNA translation (YTHDF1) and decay (YTHDF2) [39]
  IGF2BP1/2/3 Promotes mRNA stability and translation [41]
  HNRNPA2B1/C/G Regulates primary miRNA processing, mRNA structure and alternative splicing [44, 45]
  eIF3 Promotes mRNA translation [42]