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Table 5 Selected completed clinical application of cancer vaccines (2016–2021)

From: Cancer vaccines as promising immuno-therapeutics: platforms and current progress

NCT number Targeted antigens/biological Results Phases
NCT01302496 CD70, CD40 ligand, tyrosinase, gp100, MAGE-A3, or MAGE-C2 After more than five years, TriMixDC-MEL ipilimumab treatment resulted in median overall survival of 28% and a median progression-free survival of 18%. After a median follow-up of 390 weeks, 11 /39 patients are alive of whom seven remain free-from progression and have remained in complete remission following treatment with TriMIxDC-MEL ipilimumab II
NCT02139267 HPV 52% (33/64) of patients at per-protocol analysis and 67% (35/52) of patients at extension analysis presented histopathologic regression after receiving the GX-188E injection. 73% (per-protocol study) and 77% (extension analysis) of the patients with histologic regression showed HPV clearance II
NCT03481816 PSA, brachyury, MUC1 The primary endpoints were met and there were no DLTs. Seventeen of 17(100%) patients mounted T-cell responses to at least one TAA, whereas 8 (47%) of 17 patients mounted immune responses to all three TAAs I
NCT03384316 MUC1, CEA The vaccine was generally well-tolerated. Antigen-specific T cells to MUC1, CEA, and brachyury were generated in all patients (Ten patients enrolled on trial) I
NCT03199872 RV001V The vaccine was generally well-tolerated, Targeting of RhoC induced a potent and long-lasting T cell immunity in the majority of the patients (18 of 21 evaluable) I/II
NCT02981524 GVAX Seventeen patients were enrolled. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events were observed in two patients. There were no objective responses, and the disease control rate was 18% by RECIST 1.1. Biochemical responses (≥ 30% decline in CEA) were observed in 7/17 (41%) of patients II
NCT02179515 MVA-brachyury- TRICOM One transient grade 3 adverse event occurs. Including all DLs and all cancer types, 28/34 (82%) patients developed brachyury-specific CD4 + and/or CD8 + T-cell responses after vaccination I
NCT02153918 PROSTVAC-V/F The treatment course was well-tolerated, with no serious adverse events (AEs) or toxicities > grade 2 attributed to the vaccine. A total of 13/25 patients (52%) developed peripheral T-cell responses to any of the three tested TAAs (non-neoantigens) II
NCT02004262 GVAX, CRS-207 All treatments were generally well-tolerated. The study did not meet its primary efficacy endpoint. The combination of Cy/GVAX + CRS-207 did not improve survival over chemotherapy II
NCT01876212 TBVA All treatments were generally well-tolerated. 6 patients (13 evaluable patients) developed specific peripheral blood T cell responses against ≥ 3 vaccine-associated peptides, with further evidence of epitope spreading II
NCT01867086 GMCSF, TGFβ There were no treatment-related serious adverse events. FANG vaccine elicited an immune response correlating with prolonged survival II
NCT01706458 PAP The treatment course was well-tolerated, with no serious adverse events (AEs) or toxicities > grade 2 attributed to the vaccine. Median time to progression was less than 6 months and not statistically different between study arms. Th1-biased PAP-specific T-cell responses were detected in 11 individuals (completed treatments) and were not statistically different between study arms II
NCT01570036 HER2 275 patients were randomized, there were no clinicopathologic differences between vaccine and control group II
NCT01519817 Brachyury The treatment was well-tolerated, with no DLTs. 17/31 (54%) (including all dose levels) of patients developed brachyury-specific CD4 and/or CD8 T-cell responses post-vaccination I
NCT01417000 GVAX, CRS-207 The treatment was well-tolerated. Heterologous prime/boost with Cy/GVAX and CRS-207 extended survival for patients with pancreatic cancer II
NCT01341652 PAP Two-year metastasis-free survival was not different between study arms (41.8% vaccine v 42.3%; P = .97) II
NCT00088413 MUC-1, CEA Some patients who had limited tumor burden with minimal prior chemotherapy seemed to benefit from the vaccine I/II