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Table 1 Summary of VTE and Major Bleeding Rates in Trials Comparing Primary Thromboprophylaxis Strategies in Cancer Patients

From: The potential benefits of low-molecular-weight heparins in cancer patients

Ref. Cancer Patients, N Drug VTE Detection VTE, % Bleeding*, %
[39] Abdominal, thoracic 241 Orgaran 750 IU BID Asymptomatic VTE: 125I-fibrinogen and venography.
Symptomatic VTE: DVT - venography; PE - chest X-ray, VPS
10.4 9.0 (overall)
   249 UFH 5,000 U BID   14.9 10.6 (overall)
[40] Abdominal, pelvic 312 Enoxaparin 40 mg SC Symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE: DVT - venography; PE - VPS, pulmonary angiography 14.7 14.6 (minor)
4.1 (major)
   319 UFH 5,000 IU SC TID   18.2 14.3 (minor)
2.9 (major)
[41] Gynecological 160 Embolex 3,000 IU OD Asymptomatic VTE: impedance plethysmography, phlebography 6.3 16.9 (wound hematoma)
   164 UFH 5,000 IU TID   6.1 28.7 (wound hematoma)
[42] Gynecological 47 Enoxaparin 2,500 IU OD Symptomatic VTE: DVT - ultrasonography, venography; PE - VPS, pulmonary anteriography None No significant difference (rates not given)
   55 UFH 5,000 IU TID   None  
[43] Colorectal (all patients) 674 Enoxaparin 40 mg SC OD Symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE: DVT - ultrasonography, venography; PE - VPS, ultrasonography, venography, pulmonary angiography 9.4 10.1 (total) 2.7 (major)
   675 UFH 5,000 IU SC TID   9.4 6.2 (total) 1.5 (major)
  Cancer sub-group 241 Enoxaparin 40 mg SC OD   13.9 Not reported
   234 UFH 5,000 IU SC TID   16.9  
[44] Abdominal (all patients) 1,425 Dalteparin 5,000 IU OD Symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE: DVT - ultrasonography, venography; PE - lung scan, pulmonary angiography, helical computed tomography, autopsy 6.1 2.5 (major)
   1,433 Fondaparinux 2.5 mg SC OD   4.6 3.4 (major)
  Cancer sub-group 712 Dalteparin 5,000 IU OD   7.7 Not reported
   696 Fondaparinux 2.5 mg SC OD   4.7  
[45] Colorectal 486 Enoxaparin 40 mg SC OD Symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE: DVT - ultrasonography, venography; PE pulmonary angiography, autopsy 12.6 11.5 (major)
   464 Nadroparin 2,850 IU OD   15.9 7.3 (major)
  1. BID, twice daily; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; OD, once daily; PE, pulmonary embolism; SC, subcutaneous; TID, three times daily; VPS; ventilation perfusion scan; VTE, venous thromboembolism; UFH, unfractionated heparin.
  2. *For definitions of major bleeding see original studies.
  3. Included non-cancer patients.