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Table 3 Important bioactive molecules secreted by MSCs and their functions

From: Clinical applications of mesenchymal stem cells

Bioactive molecules Functions
prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) anti-proliferative mediators [40]
anti-inflammation [41]
Interleukin-10(IL-10) anti-inflammatory [42, 43]
transforming growth suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation [44]
factorβ-1(TGFβ1), hepatocyte growth factor(HGF)
Interleukin-1 receptor Antagonist anti-inflammatory [45]
human leukocyte antigen G isoform (HLA-G5) anti-proliferative for naive
T-cells [46]
LL-37 anti-microbial peptide and reduce inflammation [47]
angiopoietin-1 restore epithelial protein permeability [48]
MMP3, MMP9 mediating neovascularization [49]
Keratinocyte growth factor Alveolar epithelial fluid transport [50]
endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) enhance proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells [51, 52]