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Table 2 Summary of non-invasive approaches to monitor EGFR-TKI treatment in NSCLC patients

From: Non-invasive approaches to monitor EGFR-TKI treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer

Non-invasive approaches Methods Sensitivity Specificity Advantages Disadvantages Cost
ctDNA PCR-based techniques; DNA sequencing Moderate High Feasible on small-amount samples; suitable for detecting specific genes; high reproducibility Normalization problems Low
MicroRNAs RT-PCR-based techniques Moderate High Feasible on small-amount samples; rapid and low cost; high reproducibility Normalization problems; indirect evidence; few correlative studies Low
Proteomic biomarkers Mass spectrometry High Moderate Feasible on small-amount samples; suitable for detecting specific proteins Normalization problems; complex tumor proteins profile; indirect evidence Moderate
CTCs Cell enrichment techniques + PCR-based techniques or DNA sequencing High High Able to analyze distinct cell subpopulations; suitable for detecting specific genes Low frequency; dependent on capture techniques; normalization problems High
  1. ctDNA circulating cell-free tumor DNA, PCR polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, CTCs circulating tumor cells